Kortar , the first Klingon, along with his mate, were created by gods whom they subsequently destroyed. In , evidence was discovered, which suggested that many of the galaxy 's humanoid races were descended from a single humanoid race , who were the originators of the basic anatomy. Around 4. Klingons displayed evidence of these DNA sequences.
TNG : " The Chase ". Klingons, at one point, practiced mummification. Caskets with Klingon corpses dating back "thousands of years" before were incorporated in the ceremonial armor of the Sarcophagus.
Allegedly, Molor was also mummified. While Molor was a tyrannical dictator who was generally unpopular among the people, the chimneys of the planet's volcanoes housed shrines in which live sacrifices were thrown in his honor. Kahless the Unforgettable , a commoner, emerged as a champion of the people, and stood against Molor's troops at Qam-Chee. Here, Kahless and the Lady Lukara fought a pitched battle in the city 's Great Hall while the rest of the city's garrison fled before the five hundred soldiers.
Shortly after their victory, the two began what became known as the greatest romance in Klingon history. Kahless eventually slew Molor in single combat at the River Skral using the first bat'leth , the Sword of Kahless — an event that centuries later was still celebrated in the Empire through the Kot'baval Festival. After Molor's defeat, his temples were abandoned and built over.
However, followers of Molor , who had their own traditions, would continue to openly exist as late as the mid- 23rd century. An excerpt of the paq'batlh , a large series of ancient Klingon scrolls and religious texts, that, among other things, passed on the stories of Kahless.
Despite his low birth, Kahless ruled, together with his new wife, as Emperor of Qo'noS, establishing the First Empire. He would also conquer the Fek'Ihri and come into conflict with his brother, Morath. Kahless proved to be not only a powerful warrior, but also a wise ruler, establishing a code of honor that was to become the template for Klingon society for centuries to come.
Kahless was also a philosopher and his words were frequently invoked by warriors about to enter battle. Among his sayings were " A leader is judged not by the length of his reign, but by the decisions he makes. Sometime after Kahless united all Klingons, he left. Claiming that he was going to Sto-vo-kor , he pointed to a star and said, " Look for me there, on that point of light.
Based on the given promise , it was here where the Followers of Kahless henceforth awaited his return. Kahless' greatest legacies included not only the creation of the Klingon Empire, but also establishing the position of Emperor , thereby founding a dynastic monarchy that endured almost uninterrupted for 1, years.
Noted emperors included Sompek , remembered for his conquest of Tong Vey , when ten thousand of his warriors laid siege to the city. When Sompek captured Tong Vey, he ordered the entire population massacred, and the city burned to the ground. Emperor Mur'Eq , on the other hand, was known for introducing the use of blunted bat'leth s for practice, in order to make sure "his warriors kill their enemies and not each other".
The Sword of Kahless, one of the most important Klingon artifacts, was stolen by the Hur'q. In the 14th century , the Klingon homeworld was sacked by a powerful race from the Gamma Quadrant they called Hur'q Klingonese for "outsider". Although they did not stay long, the Hur'q did not leave before looting many valuable cultural treasures, including the revered Sword of Kahless.
The 14th century was also notable for significant religious changes that took place within Klingon society, giving rise to a new cultural outlook which was later described as " Klingon warriors, who set out and slew all of their gods, because they were more trouble than they were worth. At one point, the Second Dynasty ruled over the Klingon Empire. During the next ten years, the Empire was ruled by a council elected by the people, which was referred to as " The Dark Time " by 24th century Klingon historians although it produced several notable reforms.
Following this unique but brief period of democracy , a new group of Klingons, called the Third Dynasty , was given the titles and names of the original Imperial Family, in order to create the illusion of an unbroken line, since the true Imperial bloodlines were cut at the end of the Second Dynasty.
According to Quark , Klingons achieved warp drive sometime after By the year , Klingon vessels were capable of warp 6. In , a Vulcan ship crossed into Klingon space near H'atoria , prompting the Klingons to destroy it immediately. Not wanting to make the same mistake twice, the Vulcans henceforth fired first whenever they crossed paths with Klingons until formal diplomatic relations were established. As Commander Michael Burnham later put it, " They said ' hello ' in a language the Klingons understood.
Violence brought respect. Respect brought peace. In the mid- 21st century , the imperial monarchy, which claimed to trace its origins to the legendary warrior Kahless, came to an end when the last Emperor died and the leadership of the Empire fell to the Chancellor of the Klingon High Council. TNG : " Rightful Heir ". During the Second Empire , Chancellor Mow'ga sent a fleet to conquer the Breen , but it was never heard from again.
According to Tuvok , it was due to the Klingons being outlaws, as well as their violent and brutal behavior, that the stability of the quadrant, as it was in the late 21st century, was not achieved again until the late 23rd century.
VOY : " Alliances ". By the 22nd century , the Klingons were a major regional power, fielding a formidable military, referred to as the Klingon Imperial Fleet. ENT : " Judgment ", " Divergence ". Klingon forays into space up until the middle of the century included a starship which attempted to enter the Delphic Expanse in When it reemerged, the entire crew was anatomically inverted but still alive.
After this incident, the Klingon High Council forbade all ships from entering the Expanse. ENT : " The Expanse " At least one Klingon starship had encountered the automated repair station by , and lost a crew member to it. ENT : " Dead Stop " Several years before , the Organians , a race of massively powerful noncorporeal beings , covertly observed Klingons leaving behind a garbage dump on a planet. The Organians were studying how different ship crews were responding to a deadly, contagious silicon-based virus that their landing parties contracted on the planet.
The Klingons were said to have denied the infected back aboard, and their commander eventually had their craft destroyed, killing the landing party. ENT : " Observer Effect ". In the late s and early s , the Klingons were engaged in a fierce internal struggle that, while not amounting to actual civil war , threatened to become a more intense conflict. Numerous attacks had taken place throughout the empire that were blamed on various Klingon factions; it was not realized at the time that the attacks had actually been launched by the Cabal , who were taking orders from a mysterious individual who was an operative in the Temporal Cold War.
ENT : " Broken Bow ". Klingon society of this era was divided into several castes, including a warrior caste. While martial abilities and honor had always been important in Klingon society, the warrior caste became more influential during the 22nd century.
Other professions were regarded as less important, with most young people aspiring to become warriors. According to Kolos , by every victory was regarded as bringing honor and glory, even one against an inferior, helpless enemy. The warrior caste also gained control over the Klingon legal system. ENT : " Judgment ". Klaang provides the Klingon High Council with proof that the Cabal was behind attacks against the Empire in Although the Klingons had occasional contact with the Vulcans since , they had not met Humans until the Broken Bow Incident of , in which a courier named Klaang crashed on Earth while pursued by two Suliban soldiers.
After dispatching his two pursuers, Klaang was shot by a local farmer named Moore. The Vulcans quickly managed to convince the Klingons to let them take Klaang's corpse to Qo'noS, appeasing the Empire somewhat for the time being. However, although Vulcan Ambassador Soval then advised that Starfleet authorities withhold medical treatment and allow Klaang to die, Captain Jonathan Archer intervened and insisted on returning Klaang to Qo'noS alive aboard his ship, Enterprise NX Archer, however, did not understand the complexity or importance of Klingon tradition, and did not realize that returning Klaang to Qo'noS was a grave dishonor and insult.
However, encoded in his DNA, Klaang carried with him proof that the attacks had in fact been launched by the Suliban, which averted a civil war. For this service, Archer and his ship were allowed to leave peacefully. Klingon forces encountered the Enterprise several times throughout and In one of those incidents, the Klingons gained access to holographic technology from the Xyrillians. ENT : " Sleeping Dogs " In a more violent confrontation, the Starfleet vessel assisted the residents of a deuterium facility defend against a group of Klingon marauders led by Korok.
ENT : " Marauders ". In early , the Empire again encountered Enterprise when the Human ship rescued a refugee ship from Raatooras that was attempting to flee Klingon territory.
Captain Archer chose to render assistance to the refugees, but failed to realize the ramifications of his actions, particularly the embarrassment he would cause the Klingons.
When the Klingons demanded that the refugees be handed over for trial , Archer refused to comply. Archer was later captured and brought to trial on Narendra III , a Klingon colony, for being an "enemy of the state. Archer managed to quickly escape from the prison, due to the rescue efforts of his crew, further embarrassing the Klingons. The Klingons launched several further attempts to recapture Archer, including hiring bounty hunters and sending Duras himself to track Enterprise and recapture Archer.
ENT : " Bounty " Duras was unsuccessful in three different attacks against Enterprise , and he was finally killed when Enterprise destroyed his ship during the third attack, on the edge of the Delphic Expanse. ENT : " The Expanse ". On its way to apprehend the rogue Human Augments in , Enterprise disables a D5-class battle cruiser. The Klingon Empire nearly went to war with Earth during the Augment Crisis a year later, in May , when a group of genetically-engineered Humans hijacked a Klingon Bird-of-Prey and ejected its crew into space.
In response, the Empire sent scout ships to the vicinity of the Human Proxima colony. Planning to devastate Humanity, the Augments tried to escalate the incident by annihilating the Klingon Qu'Vat Colony with a biogenic weapon. Fortunately, war was averted when Enterprise destroyed the rogue Humans responsible and saved the colony. A short time later, the Klingons found genetic material of the Human Augments within the wreckage of the hijacked Bird-of-Prey.
Fearing that Starfleet may be attempting to create genetically superior Humans to take over the Empire, they tried to adapt this genetic engineering to improve themselves. The test subjects did gain increased strength and intelligence, but then their neural pathways started to degrade and they died in agony. One of the subjects was suffering from the Levodian flu , which was modified by the Augment genes to become a deadly, airborne plague that spread rampantly within the Empire, posing its gravest threat since the Hur'q invasion.
In the first stage of this plague, a Klingon's physiology mutated to become more Human, for which the degeneration of the cranial ridges was a symptom. With the help of a Klingon scientist named Antaak , Dr. Phlox of the Enterprise was able to formulate a cure that halted the genetic effects of the virus in the first stage, retaining the changes in appearance along with some minor neural re-ordering, but with no development of stage two characteristics, such as enhanced strength, speed or endurance.
This left millions of Klingons, mostly in the warrior caste, without their ridges. As these alterations were even passed on to their children, Phlox and Antaak theorized that surgical cranial reconstruction might become quite popular for Klingons who would want to restore their outer appearance. ENT : " Affliction ", " Divergence ". Starting around the middle of the century, encounters between Klingons and Starfleet became more rare. In , Klingon-Federation relations had degraded to a point where both powers were in a state of constant unremitting hostility.
Although encounters with the Federation were very rare since the midnd century, they included a Klingon "terror raid " on Doctari Alpha in , as well as the inconclusive Battle of Donatu V in As there was barely any communication between both sides during this period, almost no one in the Federation had seen a Klingon up until In the s , the Klingons engaged in time travel research.
Starfleet's Section 31 division learned of this research and feared the Klingons would use time travel to wipe out Humanity before it even evolved. As part of a "temporal arms race ", Section 31 initiated the Daedalus Project to develop its own time travel capabilities and procured a Klingon time crystal on the black market. The time crystal was brought to Doctari Alpha for research.
However, the Klingons managed to trace it, prompting the aforementioned attack on the outpost. As of , the twenty-four Klingon Great Houses were waging war on each other, the Empire having been in disarray for generations. However, in that year, T'Kuvma , a Klingon of noble heritage but not a member of the High Council, successfully started a Federation-Klingon War by provoking — and being martyred at — the Battle of the Binary Stars.
Under the creed "remain Klingon", T'Kuvma, as the first Klingon since Kahless, thereby managed to rally the Empire to a common cause as he had portrayed the Federation as an existential threat, whose space had encroached unacceptably close upon that of the Klingons.
Until his ship was destroyed, the war propelled General Kol of the House of Kor to the top of the High Council, partially via the dissemination of early cloaking screens to loyal commanders as leverage.
DIS : " Choose Your Pain ", " Lethe " After Kol's death, the Empire again was without clear leadership; this did not end the war, however, as the various Great Houses separately tried to inflict as much damage as possible on Federation targets, including the destruction of an entire colony , the capture of Starbase 1 , and attacks on hospitals and food convoys. Chancellor L'Rell assumes the title of "mother" in The war concluded in , when Starfleet desperately resorted to a direct assault on Qo'noS after it had lost one-third of its ships and twenty percent of Federation territory was under Klingon control.
Without official orders, the commander of the assault planted a hydro bomb within the underground volcano system of Qo'noS. However, the detonator was eventually handed to L'Rell , an early follower of T'Kuvma, who used it to seize power over the Empire and continue her former mentor's work of uniting the disparate Great Houses.
The series was a large ratings success, being the second most popular show on Australia that year, being seen by 2,, people in four cities. A soundtrack was released by Polydor Records. It is also available in North American format.
Episodes 1, 8, and 13 were published in book form in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Directed by George T. Main article: Against the Wind Soundtrack. Although set free at the completion of their terms, ex-convicts were on their own for support. The Transportation Acts made return to the United Kingdom a capital offense. Television — San Diego: A. Barnes and Company.
The high sides made it virtually impregnable to attack from small craft, which was often a problem in the East Indies. The forecastle located directly above the stem, with the bowsprit rising from its top made sailing to windward difficult and would disappear in gallions which come next. The square rigging with a lateen mizzen is typical of the age but we see a second row of top sails needed to drive this heavy ship.
Large carracks had ample room for large crews, provisions and cargo required for east Indies trading. Their size and stability allowed mounting of cannons. Typical Carrack. In , de Gama left Portugal with men, 3 carracks and one caravel; he returned 22 months later with only 2 ships and 55 men.
He had sailed 24, miles and spent days at sea [ BBC History ]. For the next years, the Portuguese controled the East India trade, sending a fleet to India almost every year, scheduled to coincide with the monsoons.
For more details see our historical page. Carracks for exploration like the Santa Maria or de Gama's San Gabriel were small, about 90 tons; but merchant ships would average tons with a crew of and some war ships went up to tons.
She was a Nao with a 40 m hull and 9 m beam. The cargo, the main reason for the voyage, consisted of tons of peppercorns, complemented with many other spices and drugs, countless bales of cotton and silk cloth of all sizes and colors, furniture, porcelain, exotic animals and thousand of luxury items from the workshops of the far east.
The ship also carried people, including crew and passengers, food and water for six months, spares and fittings. The forecastle was also made smaller and moved back. These changes, pioneered by the English under Elizabeth, made their galleons faster and more manoeuvrable and enabled them to sail considerably closer to the wind.
Galleons also started using portholes to allow guns to be mounted lower in the hull and not just on deck. This made it possible to have more powerful guns which would not capsize the ship when fired. The Galleon was a sound multi-purpose design.
War ships would have cannons on all decks whereas a merchant might have one gun deck and use the others for cargo.
Whereas, carracks were usually very large ships often over tons , galleons were mostly under tons. The Manila galleons, were to reach up to tons, were the exception. From to , these were Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain. Goods would then be taken overland to VeraCruz and hence to Spain. The galleon continued to be used until the early 18th century, when better designed and purpose-built vessels such as the fluyt , brig and the ship of the line rendered it obsolete for trade and warfare respectively.
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