The incidence of spoilage in canned foods is low, but when it occurs it must be investigated properly. Swollen cans often indicate a spoiled product. During spoilage, cans may progress from normal to flipper, to springer, to soft swell, to hard swell. However, spoilage is not the only cause of abnormal cans. Overfilling, buckling, denting, or closing while cool may also be responsible.
Microbial spoilage and hydrogen, produced by the interaction of acids in the food product with the metals of the can, are the principal causes of swelling. High summer temperatures and high altitudes may also increase the degree of swelling. Some microorganisms that grow in canned foods, however, do not produce gas and therefore cause no abnormal appearance of the can; nevertheless, they cause spoilage of the product. Spoilage is usually caused by growth of microorganisms following leakage or underprocessing.
Leakage occurs from can defects, punctures, or rough handling. Contaminated cooling water sometimes leaks to the interior through pinholes or poor seams and introduces bacteria that cause spoilage. A viable mixed microflora of bacterial rods and cocci is indicative of leakage, which may usually be confirmed by can examination. Underprocessing may be caused by undercooking; retort operations that are faulty because of inaccurate or improperly functioning thermometers, gauges, or controls; excessive contamination of the product for which normally adequate processes are insufficient; changes in formulation or handling of the product that result in a more viscous product or tighter packing in the container, with consequent lengthening of the heat penetration time; or, sometimes, accidental bypassing of the retort operation altogether.
When the can contains a spoiled product and no viable microorganisms, spoilage may have occurred before processing or the microorganisms causing the spoilage may have died during storage.
Underprocessed and leaking cans are of major concern and both pose potential health hazards. However, before a decision can be made regarding the potential health hazard of a low-acid canned food, certain basic information is necessary. Naturally, if Clostridium botulinum spores, toxin, or both is found, the hazard is obvious. Intact cans that contain only mesophilic, Gram-positive, sporeforming rods should be considered underprocessed, unless proved otherwise.
It must be determined that the can is intact commercially acceptable seams and no microleaks and that other factors that may lead to underprocessing, such as drained weight and product formulation, have been evaluated. The preferred type of tool for can content examination is a bacteriological can opener consisting of a puncturing device at the end of a metal rod mounted with a sliding triangular blade that is held in place by a set screw.
The advantage over other types of openers is that it does no damage to the double seam and therefore will not interfere with subsequent seam examination of the can. The number of cans examined bacteriologically should be large enough to give reliable results. When the cause of spoilage is clear-cut, culturing cans may be adequate, but in some cases it may be necessary to culture cans before the cause of spoilage can be determined.
On special occasions these procedures may not yield all the required information, and additional tests must be devised to collect the necessary data.
Unspoiled cans may be examined bacteriologically to determine the presence of viable but dormant organisms. The procedure is the same as that used for spoiled foods except that the number of cans examined and the quantity of material subcultured must be increased. Media and reagents. Remove labels. With marking pen, transfer subnumbers to side of can to aid in correlating findings with code. Mark labels so that they may be replaced in their original position on the can to help locate defects indicated by stains on label.
Separate all cans by code numbers and record size of container, code, product, condition, evidence of leakage, pinholes or rusting, dents, buckling or other abnormality, and all identifying marks on label. Classify each can according to the descriptive terms in Table 1. Before observing cans for classification, make sure cans are at room temperature.
Classification of cans. NOTE : Cans must be at room temperature for classification. Swollen cans. Immediately analyze springers, swells, and a representative number at least 6, if available of flat and flipper cans. Retain examples of each, if available, when reserve portion must be held.
Examine at frequent intervals for 14 days. When abnormal can or one becoming increasingly swollen is found, make note of it. When can becomes a hard swell or when swelling no longer progresses, culture sampled contents, examine for preformed toxin of C. Hard swells, soft swells, and springers. Chill hard swells in refrigerator before opening.
Scrub entire uncoded end and adjacent sides of can using abrasive cleanser, cold water, and a brush, steel wool, or abrasive pad. Rinse and dry with clean sterile towel. Badly swollen cans may spray out a portion of the contents, which may be toxic. Take some precaution to guard against this hazard, e. Sterilize can opener by flaming until it is almost red, or use separate presterilized can openers, one for each can.
At the time a swollen can is punctured, test for headspace gas, using a qualitative test or the gas-liquid chromatography method described below. For a qualitative test, hold mouth of sterile test tube at puncture site to capture some escaping gas, or use can-puncturing press to capture some escaping gas in a syringe. Flip mouth of tube to flame of Bunsen burner. A slight explosion indicates presence of hydrogen. Immediately turn tube upright and pour in a small amount of lime water.
This has fallen out of practice, having been replaced by the mainstream religious procession. The statue itself was adorned with valuable ex-votos.
It was customarily stored at night in a secured cabinet, but on 1 February at approximately PM, two thieves masqueraded as workers on a scaffold erected in the monastery for renovations. By one account, the thieves ransacked the friars' rooms looking for valuables, and coming to the room where the image was stored at night, found the armored cabinet open. While the police believed it would be difficult to recover any of the gold and valuables taken with the image, they considered the Santo Bambino too well known to be easily marketed.
A number of rich individuals offered to underwrite a ransom, but the Franciscans discouraged that approach and proceeded to have a copy made. The inmates at the Regina Coeli prison even wrote a petition to their anonymous "colleagues", asking for its return. Pious tradition holds that when the friar did not have the paints necessary to finish his work, it was completed by an angel.
Upon his return to Italy, the ship was wrecked during a storm. The friar survived and later found the statue washed up on the shore at Livorno. A second tale recounts that in , the Princess Paolina Borghese wishing to have the statue for herself, had a copy made. When her cousin became gravely ill, the family requested that the Bambino be brought, but returned the copy. However, at midnight while the bells rang at Santa Maria in Araceoli, the statue miraculously returned to its rightful place, thus inspiring the famous urban legend tale of a Roman noblewoman pretending to be sick with the ulterior motive to take the image to her home.
It may be sealed. You cold also try the push-down-and-turn method. This applies to most bottles. Not Helpful 12 Helpful 6. I can't seem to open an Advil container. I continuously used the table method, but it didn't work, I tried every single method; any advice?
Use a pair of rubber gloves with a jar-opening pad folded in half to maximize grip. If both the top and the bottle have a glove and pad on either side, you maximize the grip. Line up the opening points and make them more visible with a black marker. Try opening with this combination. Not Helpful 5 Helpful 3. You could try cutting open the side with an X-Acto knife.
Be very careful and do it where things won't accidentally slip. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Related wikiHows How to. How to. Co-authors: 7. Updated: August 15, Categories: Medicines and Drugs Opening Packaging. Article Summary X To open a child proof pill container, check the label to determine what type of lock is being used on the container.
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