Yes, I do she replies. The husband paused, the words were not coming easily. Do you remember when your father caught us in the back seat of my car making love?. Yes I remember, said the wife, lowering herself into a chair beside him. The husband continued.
She whispered softly. A Diner Quickie A man goes into a restaurant and is seated. All the waitresses are gorgeous. We can inject humor into a story, add a song like the griots do, or perform a piece for all to enjoy. Inevitably, what is conveyed is the humor and message of our story. An illusion, a shadow, a story, And the greatest good is little enough: for all life is a dream, and dreams themselves are only dreams. Footprints One night a man had a dream. He dreamt he was walking along the beach with the Lord.
Across the sky flashed scenes from his life. For each scene he noticed two sets of footprints on the sand — one belonging to him and the other to the Lord. When the last scene had flashed before him, he looked back at the footprints and he noticed only one set.
He also noticed that this happened during the lowest and saddest times of his life. This bothered him and he questioned the Lord. During your times of trial and suffering, when you see only one set of footprints, those were the times when I carried you in my arms.
A Priest and Nun in Winter A priest and a nun were lost in a snowstorm. After a while, they came upon a small cabin. Being exhausted, they prepared to go to sleep. There was a stack of blankets in the corner and a sleeping bag on the floor but only one bed.
We use stories to share ideas, information, advice, hope, humor, and many other lessons. Ultimately, our images and stories help us as much as they help others…What do you think? What are your thoughts? Do you enjoy telling stories? How d0 you find the stories you share? Do you have fond memories of storytime during your childhood? What kind of stories appeal to you? Do share! Thank you. Positive Motivation Tip: Stories transport us to another time while teaching us profound lessons about life.
Find your story…. Stories: Found on Yuni. Until Next Time… Ask. What a wonderful collection of stories…. I loved them…. I thinks so much wisdom and insight can be offered and received through stories…. Another volley of blossom unfolds atop their stems, assuring me that on the morrow I shall yet have their company. I return the flowers to a corner of the hearth, knowing I am ready, now, for what the day may bring.
I love short stories! They are so inspiring. I am glad that you did a post on it today as I am getting ready to move again and trying to keep my spirits up.
TY for your comment Karen… must have been a remarkable year! I missed quite a few comments. I loved the story about the bus driver. I find myself asking how you manage to put these posts together. As well as being great they indicate a lot of work. They took some work, but I had my system of putting them together and sometimes, they took a few days.
I wrote quite a number of posts in advance. I love reading stories and wisdom and humor work for me too. I love your selection and, like Countingduck, I admire the effort you put into your posts.
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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Author of Leonardo da Vinci; Leonardo architetto. Top Questions. Read more below: Art and accomplishment: Leonardo as artist-scientist.
Mona Lisa. Last Supper. Read more below: Art and accomplishment: Painting and drawing. Giorgio Vasari. Read more below: Life and works.
Andrea del Verrocchio. Pollaiuolo brothers. They were engendered during a man's sleep with Lilitu or one of her demon servants see also succubus.
When the man who had engendered them was about to die, they surrounded his bed waiting for the moment during which they could take their father's soul, impeding his travel to the Underworld, and making of him an errant spirit, feared by all living people see also ghost.
In Sumerian mythology Allu was a demonic power. Alouqua — A female demon who is also a succubus and vampire who exhausts men and drives them to suicide. Alpiel — An angel or demon, who, according to the Talmud, presides over fruit trees. Alrunes — Female demons or sorceresses, the mothers of the Huns. They took all sorts of shapes but without changing their sex. The name was given by the Germans to the little statues of sorceresses, about a foot high. To these, they attributed great virtues, clothing them richly, housing them comfortably, and serving them food and drink at every meal.
They believed that if these little statues were neglected, they would cry out and a catastrophe, which was to be avoided at all costs, would occur to the household. They can foretell the future, answer by the means of motions and nods, and unintelligible words. Alrunes — Female demons or sorceresses, the mothers of the Huns in ancient Germany.
They took all sorts of shapes, but without changing their sex. Alu-Demon — The Semitic demon owes his parentage to a human being; he hides himself in caverns and corners, and slinks through the streets at night.
He also lies in wait for the unwary, and at night enters bedchambers and terrorizes folks, threatening to pounce upon them if they shut their eyes. Alu-Demon — Semitic Night demon. Alu-demon — Ancient Babylonian demon, said to owe his parentage to a human being; he hides himself in caverns and corners, and slinks through the streets at night. Amaimon — One of the four spirits who preside over the four parts of the universe. Amaimon, according to some magickians, was the governor of the eastern part.
Amaimon — One of the 72 spirits of Solomon. Amaimon — Also called Amaymon. One of the four spirits who preside over the four parts of the universe. Amaimon is the governor of the eastern part, according to the grimoire or magic manual of the Lemegeton of Solomon, also known as the Little Key.
Aman — A servitor of Astaroth. To nourish. Aman — One of the demons who possessed Sister Jeanne des Anges. Aman was among the first of the demons whom she managed to expel. Amane — According to the Book of Enoch, one of the leaders of the two hundred angels who rebelled against God and swore allegiance to Samiaza. Amaniel — A servitor of Astaroth and Asmodeus.
Nourishment of god. Amatia — A servitor of Beelzebub. Amaymon — A Prince of Hell, and according to some grimoires, the only one who has power on Asmodai.
A curious use is attributed to this demon, showing how much concerns Asmodai to him, and his importance in the hellish hierarchy; it is that when Asmodai appears under request, the conjurer must stand on his feet and be valiant and respectful, because if he does not, Amaymon will deceive him and doom all his work.
Amaymon is said to have a deadly poisonous breath. All kings and princes of Hell must hold a silver ring in the middle finger of their left hand against their faces when they are before him as a protection from the flaming breath of the demon when he enrages. Other spellings: Amaimon, Amoymon. Amaymon — Evil Spirit, king of South. Ambolen — A servitor of Astaroth and Asmodeus. Tending unto nothingness. Ambolon — A servitor of Beelzebub. Earth thrown up. Amchison — A servitor of Magoth and Kore.
Amducias — Grand Duke of Hades. According to Wierius a demon of music. Amducious — Hebrew The destroyer. Amdukias — A demon who has thirty legions of demons under his command 29 according to other authors. He has the rank of Great Duke. Amdukias is associated with the thunder, it being said that his voice is heard during storms. In other sources, all types of musical instruments can be heard but not seen when he appears.
He can make trees bend at will. He is depicted as a human with claws instead of hands and feet, the head of a unicorn, and a trumpet to symbolise his powerful voice. According to other sources, this demon is depicted as a unicorn, and changes into a man under the request of the conjurer.
Other spellings: Ambduscias, Amduscias, Amdusias. Amduscias — 1 Grand Duke of Hades. Controls by music. Gives excellent familiars. He has the form of a unicorn, but when evoked appears in human shape. He gives concerts, at the command of men, where one hears the sound of all the musical instruments but can see nothing. It is said that the trees themselves incline to his voice.
He commands 29 legions. He makes trees fall at the will of the operator and gives excellent familiars. Amduscias — A Grand Duke of Hell, commander of twenty-nine legions. He has the form of a unicorn, but when evoked, appears in human shape. He gives concerts, at the command of men, where one hears the sound of all kinds of instruments but can see nothing.
It is said that the trees themselves bend to his voice. He is a Duke Great and Strong, appearing at first like a Unicorn, but at the request of the Exorcist he standeth before him in Human Shape, causing Trumpets, and all manner of Musical Instruments to be heard, but not soon or immediately. He giveth Excellent Familiars. He governeth 29 Legions of Spirits. And his Seal is this, etc. Ammit — In Egyptian mythology, Ammit "Devourer" known as the"devourer of the dead" was a female demon, part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile.
Ammit lived under the scales of justice in Duat, the underworld. Thoth weighed the heart of a person against a feather, the symbol of Ma'at, the goddess of truth. If the heart was judged not pure, Ammut would devour it and the person undergoing judgement was not allowed to enter heaven, Aaru. Alternatives: Ammut, Ahemait Ammut — The most popular neitherworld demon. She devoured the souls of people who failed the "Scale of Truth".
Those who lived up to the Gods expectations and ruled Egypt accordingly were rewarded with Duat. Amon — 1 Marquis of the Infernal Empire. Knows past, future and can reconcile. Procures feuds and reconciles friends. When he appears in human form, his head resembles that of a large owl with canine teeth.
He is the strongest of the princes of the demons, knows the past and the future, and can reconcile, when he will, friends who have quarreled. When so ordered, he assumes a human shape, but the teeth of a dog.
He discerns past and future, procures love, and reconciles friends and foes. Amon, Ammon — Egyption Sun God. Much like Lucifer except controls reproduction and life. See also Amaimon, Amoymon, Amaymon, and Aamon. Amon — Egyptian ram-headed god of life and reproduction Amon — A marquis of hell and strongest of the demon princes, commander of forty legions.
Depicted as a wolf-headed demon with a serpents tail, vomiting flame. When in human form, his head resembles that of a large owl with canine teeth. He knows the past and the future, and can reconcile friends who have quarreled.
Amon — The Seventh Spirit is Amon. He is a Marquis great in power, and most stern. He telleth all things Past and to Come. He governeth 40 Legions of Spirits.
His Seal is this which is to be worn as aforesaid, etc. Amoymon — 1 Grand President of Eastern Hades. Can be invoked from 9am to Noon. Makes on wonderfully knowing in astrology and liberal sciences. He appears enveloped with flame, but on earth, in human form.
He teaches the secrets of astrology and of the liberal arts, and gives faithful servants. He reveals to those who possess his favor, the hiding place of treasures guarded by demons. The fallen angels acknowledge his orders, and he hopes that at the end of , years, he shall return to heaven to occupy the seventh throne. He gives perfect knowledge of astrology and the liberal sciences, with good familiars, and can betray treasures that are kept by spirits.
Amoymon — One of the four kings of Hades, of which the eastern part falls to his share. He is invoked in the morning from nine to twelve and in the evening from three to six.
He has been identified with Amaimon. Asmodeus is his lieutenant and the first prince of his dominions. Amy — One of the 72 spirits of Solomon. Said to be supreme president of hell. He will trade knowledge for the human soul. Amy — A Great President of Hell, who has thirty-six legions of demons under his command. He teaches Astrology and all Liberal Sciences, gives good familiars, and can find treasures that are kept by spirits.
According to Pseudomonarchia Daemonum he hopes to be an angel again after one thousand and two hundred years. He is depicted as a flaming fire, but after a while changing shape into a man. Other spelling: Avnas. Amy — According to an ancient grimoire, Grand President of Hades, and one of the princes of the infernal monarchy.
He appears there enveloped with flame, but on earth, in human form. He reveals to those who possess his favour the hiding place of treasures guarded by demons. Thirty-six of the infernal legions are under his command. The fallen angels acknowledge his orders, and he hopes that at the end of 20, years he shall return to heaven to occupy the seventh throne. He giveth Good Familiars, and can bewray Treasure that is kept by Spirits. He governeth 36 Legions of Spirits, and his Seal is this, etc.
Anader — A servitor of Ariton. A flayer. Anagotos — A servitor of Magoth and Kore. Anamelech — 1 Bearer of ill news. He was worshipped at the Sepharvaun, an Assyrian town. He always reveals himself in the figure of a quail. Anamelech, Anomylech — Assyrian Bearer of bad news.
An obscure demon. Some sources claim Anamelech is the moon goddess while Andramalech is the sun god. Anamalech — Bearer of ill news. He was worshipped at Sepharvahim, a town of the Assyrians. He reveals himself in the figure of a quail. His name, we are told, signified a "good king", and some authorities declare that this demon was the moon, as Andramalech is the sun.
Anarazel — 1 Shakes foundations of houses. Raises tempests, causes specters to appear and inspires a thousand nightmares. It is he who, with his companions Gazeil and Fecor, shakes the foundations of houses, raises the tempests, rings the bells at midnight, causes specters to appear, and inspires a thousand terrors.
Anarazel — One of the demons charged with the guardianship of subterranean treasures, which he carries about from one place to another, to hide them from men..
It is he who, with his companions Gaziel and Fecor, shakes the foundations of houses, raises tempests, rings the bells at midnight, causes spectres to appear, and inspires a thousand terrors. Ancitif — A little known demon, who, during the possession of the nuns of Louviers, in , was said to have occupied the body of Sister Barbara of St.
Andhaka — In Hinduism, Andhaka is a malevolent demon. Andhaka — A Hindu demon. Andras — 1 Marquis of Hell. Sows dischord. It was noted in one source that this demon is dangerous and if the magickian is not careful, he will be slain. He sows discord, and will kill the unwary. Andras — Unk God of quarrels. Grand marquis of hell. Andras — A Great Marquis a Prince to other authors of Hell, having under his command thirty legions of demons.
He sows discord among people. This is a dangerous demon, because if the conjurer has not care he will kill him, his fellows, his assistants, and any other person present.
Andras is depicted as an angel with or without wings depending on the source, with the head of a raven of an owl according to other sources , riding a black and strong wolf, and with a sharp and bright sword in his hand.
Andras — A Grand Marquis of Hell, commander of thirty legions. Depicted as an owl head with the body of a winged angel, riding a black wolf and brandishing a pointed sabre. He teaches those whom he favours to kill their enemies, masters and servants. He sows discord and will kill the unwary. Andras — The Sixty-third Spirit is Andras. His Office is to sow Discords. If the Exorcist have not a care, he will slay both him and his fellows. He governeth 30 Legions of Spirits, and this is his Seal, etc.
Andrealphlus — 1 Marquis. Makes men subtle. Transforms men into the likeness of a bird. He teaches geometry perfectly, and all that belongs to measurements, astronomy included. He can transform men into the likeness of a bird. Andrealphus — One of the 72 Spirits of Solomon. Andrealphus — A Great Marquis of Hell, who has under his rule thirty legions of demons. He teaches Astronomy, all mathematical sciences, and Geometry.
He makes men very subtle and cunning, and good disputers. Andrealphus can also transform a man into the likeness of a bird. He is depicted as a peacock that makes great noises, but after a while changing his shape into a man.
Other spelling: Androalphus. Andrealphus — A mighty marquis, appears at first in the shape of a peacock, with a great noise, but after puts on human shape. He teaches geometry perfectly and all that belongs to measurements, astronomy included. Andrealphus — The Sixty-fifth Spirit is Andrealphus. He is a Mighty Marquis, appearing at first in the form of a Peacock, with great Noises. But after a time he putteth on Human shape.
He can teach Geometry perfectly. He maketh Men very subtle therein; and in all Things pertaining unto Mensuration or Astronomy. He can transform a Man into the Likeness of a Bird. He governeth 30 Legions of Infernal Spirits, and his Seal is this, etc. Andromalius — 1 Earl. Discovers all wickedness and underhanded dealings. Punishes all thieves and wicked people. He returns stolen goods and the thief, discovers all wickedness and underhanded dealing, and also hidden treasures.
Andromalius — One of the 72 Spirits of Solomon. Andromalius — A mighty Great Earl of Hell, having thirty-six legions of demons at his service. He can bring back both a thief and the stolen goods, punishes all thieves and other wicked people, and discovers hidden treasures, all evilness, and all dishonest dealing.
Andromalius is depicted as a man holding a big serpent in his hand. Andromalius — A great duke and earl, appears in the form of a man holding a serpent in his hand. He returns stolen goods and the thief, discovers all wickedness and underhand dealing, as also hidden treasures.
His Office is to bring back both a Thief, and the Goods which be stolen; and to discover allWickedness, and Underhand Dealing; and to punish all Thieves and other Wicked People and also to discover Treasures that be Hid. He ruleth over 36 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, the which wear thou as aforesaid, etc. Andryn — In the one-hundred and forty-seventh to one-hundred and fifty-third degrees the stars are right of Andryn, who is the weakest of the Old Spirits as he cannot harm the holder of the second ring of Nerexo.
Angra Mainyu — Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the "evil spirit" in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. Angra Mainyu is the adversary of Ahura Mazda, the god of good. The name does not occur in the Old Persian inscriptions. He is the all-destroying Satan, the source of all evil in the world and, like Ahura Mazda, exists since the beginning of the world.
Ahriman chose evil consciously, and by this act he created death. Eventually, in the great world catastrophe, he will be defeated by Ahura Mazda and disappear. The later sect of the Zervanites held that both were visible manifestations of the primeval principle zruvan akarana infinite time. The central subject of Zoroastrian teaching and theology is the constant ongoing battle between Angra Mainyu and Ahura Mazda.
Anini — One of the 72 Spirits of Solomon. Anneberg — A demon of the mines, known principally in Germany. On one occasion he killed with his breath twelve miners who were working in a silver mine of which he had charge. He is a wicked and terrible demon, represented under the figure of a horse, with an immense neck and frightful eyes. Anneberg — German Demon of mines. Anneberg — Demon of the mines, known principally in Germany. He was a wicked and terrible demon, sometimes represented as a large goat, sometimes as a horse, with an immense neck and frightful eyes.
Ansitif — A little known demon, who, during the possession of the nuns of Louviers, in , occupied the body of Sister Barbara of St. Michael in during the possessions of the nuns at Louviers. Antichristos — Greek Antichrist.
Antidikos — Greek Adversary. Actually, it literally can mean "one who speaks against"--which is an adversary. Aosoth — Dark female force in the pantheon of the Order of the Nine Angles. Works of passion and death.
The name should be vibrated. Apaosa — Apaosa Apa-urta is a demon who brings drought and aridity. He rides on a black, bald horse. Eventually he was defeated by the god Tistrya. He is equal to the Indian evil spirit Vritra.
Apelki — A servitor of Amaymon. Apistos Diastrepho Genea — Greek Faithless and perverse generation. Apolhun — The destroyer. A servitor of Oriens, Paimon, Ariton and Amaymon. Apolluon — Greek Apollyon, the destroyer, angel of the abyss. Apollyn — Greek Another name for Satan. Apollyon — A deceiver. Apollyon — Greek synonym for Satan, the arch fiend. Apormenos — A servitor of Astaroth. Apot — A servitor of Asmodeus and Magoth. A tribute or treasure.
Arael — One of the spirits which the rabbis of the Talmud made princes and governors over the people of the birds. Araex — A servitor of Astaroth. The Magickal Covenant is descriptive of the uneasy truce that exists between the forces of Good and Evil, or, if you will, the Ancient Ones and the Elder Gods, both alien life forms which somehow contributed to the birth of the human race and which now vie for superiority over us.
Aratron — Can convert any living organism into stone in a moment of time. He can change treasure into coals and vice versa. He gives familiars and reconciles subterranean spirits to men. He teaches magick, alchemy and medicine. Imparts the secret of invisibility, makes the barren fruitful and confers long life. Archaios Ophis — Greek The primeval snake. Archon Daimonion — Greek Chief demon-god, Beelzebub? Archon Exousia Aer — Greek Chief of the air-force.
Actually, "exousia" has a translation which is closer to "that which comes from the essence of" than "force". This would make an "archon exousia aer" the chief of that which comes from the essences of the air. Archon Toutou Kosmos — Greek Chief of this world. A ruler. Ardat-Lile — She is a female spirit or demoness who weds human beings and works great harm in the dwellings of men. A "college" dic tio nary is not for use in col lege only; the phrase "col lege dic tio nary" is simply a rough in di ca tion of the vo cab u lary level of the readers for whom the dictionary is appropriate.
Some of us may have developed a fear of dictionaries at about the age when we formed a fear of dentists. Some times the main entry includes stress marks to tell you which syllables to stress when pronouncing the word. Always observe the pronunciation of a word when you look it up. If you know how to pro nounce a word, you're more likely to use it. If you don't know how to pronounce a word, you're more likely to embarrass yourself at cock tail par ties.
And the more you use a word, the more likely you'll be able to remem ber it. Part of speech-this abbreviation means that abridge is a verb, spe cif i cal ly a transitive verb. A transitive verb is one that carries action from a subject to a direct object. For example, in the sentence The dog ate the book, the verb ate car ries action from the dog to the book. Sim i lar ly, in The editor abridged the book, the verb abridged car ries action from the editor to the book.
An example of an intransitive verb is to sleep. In The dog sleeps, the verb does not carry any ac tion from the subject dog to any other thing. Notice, for example, that we drop the e before adding ing. The most common definition of the word-The Random House Webster's College Dictionary is one of the few that include helpful phras es or sen tenc es to show you how to use the word in con text.
This feature is quite useful. The example tells us that we would not use abridge this way: The tailor abridged Susan's long skirt to make it a mini. Other def i ni tions, generally in order of im por tance-some times a def i ni tion will include close synonyms.
See ab bre vi ate] The et y mol o gy-some dic tio nar ies include the et y mol o gy be fore the def i ni tions. You don't have to be a linguist, but the word abridge de vel oped from medieval Latin to Mid dle French to Middle En glish: abbreviare meaning "to shorten" , in medieval Latin be came abreg i er in Middle French, which became abregge or abrigge in Middle English, which finally became abridge.
The et y mol o gy suggests that we look up ab bre vi ate. If you have the time you should do so. It will re in force your un der stand ing of abridge. We will discuss etymology in more detail lat er, because it is a pow er ful mnemonic. Look It Up! Other parts of speech, along with an alternative British spelling. See shorten. An abridged! The entry suggests that we look up shorten.
Not all dictionaries include it. Short en, ab bre vi ate, abridge, cur-tail mean to make shorter or briefer. Shorten is a general word meaning to make less in ex tent or duration: to shorten a dress, a pris on er's sentence. The other three words sug gest meth ods of short en ing. To ab bre vi ate is to make shorter by omis sion or con trac tion: to ab bre vi ate a word.
To abridge is to reduce in length or size by con dens ing, sum ma riz ing, and the like: to abridge a doc u ment. Curtail suggests dep ri va tion and lack of com plete ness because of cutting off part: to cur tail an ex pla na tion.
This entry distinguishes shorten from a number of syn onyms, in clud ing abridge. The digression took another minute or so, but we've come away with a better un der stand ing of the meanings and their nuances LIU!
We will con sid er syn onyms in detail when we discuss how to use a thesaurus. In the first place, because this isn't a dictionary. We've tried to make Word Smart easier to read and understand than a big dictionary. Don't get us wrong. We use dictionaries, we rely on dic tio nar ies, but sometimes we wish that lexicographers those fun-loving peo ple who write dictionaries would com mu ni cate in basic En glish.
We aren't as sophisticated as lexicographers. So for each word in Word Smart, we give you a basic definition. Some times a close synonym is enough. Then we give you-and this is important-a sentence or two so that you can see how to use the word. An abridged dictionary is one that has been short ened to keep it from crushing desks and people's laps.
An abridgment is a shortened or condensed work. The problem with most dictionaries is that they don't tell you how to use the word. You can always spot someone who has learned new words almost exclusively through the dic tio nary rath er than through general read ing sup ple ment ed with a dic tio nary. When you ask such people the def i ni tion of a word, it's al most as if they fall into a trance-their eyes glaze over as they rattle off the definition almost word for word from a dic tio nary.
Use a dictionary, but don't become a slave to it. Don't settle for the dictionary definition. For that matter, don't settle for our def i ni tion. Make up your own definition. You'll understand the mean ing better.
What's more, you'll be more likely to re mem ber it. A thesaurus can be another use ful tool in your word-building cam paign, but only if you use it properly. Many people don't. Thesaurus abuse is common. Students often try to make their vocabularies seem bigger than they actually are by us ing a thesaurus to beef up the papers they write. Neophytes chron i cal ly endeavor to induce their par lance to por tend more magisterially by employing a lexicon of synonyms to amplify the theses they inscribe.
They write their papers in their own words, then plug in words from a thesaurus. That's what we did with the silly-sounding sen tence in the parentheses above. You'd be surprised how many stu dents actually com pose their papers that way. The best way to use a thesaurus is as a supplement to your dic tio nary, as a reference work that can help you find the word that expresses precisely what you are trying to say.
A good thesaurus is intended to help a speaker or writ er dis tinguish the shades of difference between words of sim i lar meaning. Randolph examines his month ly bank state ment with a calculator to make sure that his interest has been properly computed to the penny.
Ran dolph is someone who, like Jack Benny, would have to think long and hard if a mugger pre sent ed him with the dilemma "Your money or your life. Being the careful writer you are, you de cide to see whether cheap is the most precise word you can come up with. Chicken is not as cheap as it was: in ex pen sive, low-priced, economical, rea son able. Talk is cheap: effort less, costless, easy. The coat may be expensive, but it looks cheap: shoddy, shabby, inferior, worthless, poor, sec ond-rate, trashy, mea ger, pal try, gim crack, flashy, gaudy, in bad taste, tawdry, tacky, com mon, inelegant.
Spreading gossip is a cheap thing to do: contempt ible, pet ty, des pi ca ble, sordid, ignoble, wretch ed, mean, base.
Slang two-bit; vul gar, im mor al, inde cent. He's too cheap to pick up the check: tight, stingy, miserly, pe nu ri ous, tightfisted, close.
The entry cheap lists five primary meanings, each pre ced ed by an il lus tra tive sentence. You scan the sentences until you find the one you want: the last one. Now you ex amine the synonyms. Forget this one. You decide to look this one up in the regular dic tionary. Before leaving the thesaurus, however, you decide to check out the listing for miserly and come up with the following additional words: grasping: More a synonym of greedy.
Randolph isn't pre cise ly greedy. He doesn't want to accumulate a lot; he just wants to hold on to what he has. Just to be orderly, you look up the seven words al pha bet i cal ly in The Random House College Dictionary: avaricious characterized by avarice insatiable greed for riches; in ordi nate desire to gain and hoard wealth ; cov et ous Nope, you don't mean greedy. Avaricious is out. The first definition means careful with money. Economical and pru dent both have positive connotations, but Randolph's obsession with money is not something good.
The second definition is not the one we want-out. Nope, none of these seems to convey the meaning you want. Well, this might be right. You have to think about Ran dolph a little more.
What are his circumstances like? Is he willing to live in wretched circum stanc es? It's a possiblity. Let's take a look at the last few before you de cide. Now you have es tab lished that parsimonious means stin gi er than frugal. This seems to hit the mark. The first definition works, but the second definition seems to imply a stin gi ness perhaps resulting from poverty. The third def i ni tion does not apply.
Now you have to think again about Randolph. Is he poor as well as cheap? If so, this is the right word. You're still left with stingy, tightfisted, penny-pinching, mi ser ly, nig gard ly, parsimonious, and penurious. Oh, and there's still the blunt, if un as sum ing, cheap, which you started with.
Which word is the right word? Stingy is the right word if you want to use a simple, nononsense word. Tightfisted is the word if you want something a little more slangy and graphic. Penny-pinching is right if you want the image to be a little more explicit than tightfisted.
Miserly could be the right word, depending on Randolph's liv ing cir cum stanc es. Niggardly is the right word if Randolph is merely reluc tant to spend money. If he's more than reluctant, this isn't the right word. Parsimonious is the right word if you want a multisyl labic syn onym for cheap or stingy. From the definitions, par si mo ni ous seems more extreme than stingy.
Penurious is the right word if Randolph is poor as well as stingy. To decide which word is the right word, you must give more thought to precisely what aspect of Randolph you're trying to cap ture and convey. Perhaps you want to achieve alliteration Randolph is a pre ten tious, penny-pinching poet or a certain rhyme Alimony drove Randolph to par si mo ny. Part of SpeechMiserly seems okay as an adjective, but miserliness seems a little awk ward as a noun.
Vocabulary LevelWho will read your description of Randolph? Your word choice may be limited by your potential reader or au di ence. Other things being equal, the simple word is the better word.
VarietyIf you've used cheap several times already in the same piece of writing, you may want to use a different word. RepetitionOn the other hand, repeating the same word may have a powerful effect. Dramatic EffectA simple word in an academic setting, or an academic word in a simple setting, can have a dramatic effect. Comic effects can also be achieved by using a word in an inappropriate or incongruous con text.
Still, we want to note in passing that good editing is more than simply reviewing the words you use. Editing means refining your ideas. Editing means de cid ing on the order ing and presentation of your ideas.
Edit ing means de cid ing which ideas you're going to present at all. We rec om mend that the thesaurus you use be one that lists words al pha bet i cal ly in the text itself. Ideally, the the sau rus should include sam ple sentences that distinguish at least some of the different shades of meanings. An oth er good book is Merriam-Webster's Collegiate The sau rus. But it's also a slow way. Which words you encounter in your reading depend on which words the writers happen to use.
That's where we come in. The main section of Word Smart is a con cen trat ed source of the words you want to know-the words you need to help yourself build an educated vo cab u lary. We've also included fun facts, etymology, and usage, which are integral to the vocabulary learning methods you're about to encounter. If you want to build an educated vocabulary, you have to work, too.
We have had a great deal of success with our methods, and we think they're more successful than other methods. But there's noth ing magical about them. You'll just have to roll up your sleeves and get to work.
We'll describe these methods in a moment. Then, at the end of this chapter, we'll outline an ef fective general regimen for learn ing new words per ma nent ly and for incorporating them into your life. As you work through this book, you'll undoubtedly find that you need to tailor your approach to the way you think and learn best. You may discover that for a particular word one method works best, and that for another word another method works best.
That's fine. We'll show you the methods we have found to be the most suc cess ful for our students. Use the one or ones that suit you best. The first letter in each word in this silly sentence stands for the letters in arithmetic. Remember the sentence and you remem ber how to spell the word. Mnemonics can appeal to our ears, too. How about the history mne mon ic: In fourteen hundred ninety-two, Co lum bus sailed the ocean blue? Or the spelling mnemonic: "i" before "e" except after "c," and in words that say "a," as in "neighbor" and "weigh"?
When you make up a little game to remember your locker com bi na tion or a friend's birthday, you're using a mnemonic. How Do Mnemonics Work? All mne mon ics work in the same way: by forcing you to associate what you're trying to remember with something that you already know, or with something that is easier to memorize.
Patterns and rhymes are easy to mem o rize, which explains why so many mne mon ics use them. Incidentally, it may also explain why rhyming became a part of poetry. The earliest poets and bal lad eers didn't write down their com po si tions because many didn't know how to write. Instead, they kept the poems in their heads. Among other things, the rhymes at the ends of the lines made the poems easier to remember.
There's a Science to MnemonicsEven though we all use mne mon ics every day, you may not be aware that some very clever systems of mne mon ics have been de vel oped to enable people to memorize just about any thing. The undisputed mnemonic champ is Harry Lorayne, who as a trick used to memorize telephone directories! We're talk ing about names, phone num bers, and addresses! Men tal images are really mne mon ics, too.
They help you remem ber. The emphasis here is on suggestive mental pictures rather than on tricky ab bre vi a tions or coincidences of spell ing. Let's look at an example. We'll start with a word we've already used in this chapter: abridge.
As you know, to abridge is to shorten or condense. What image pops into your mind when you think of the word abridge? That's easy: a bridge. Now you need to pic ture something happening on or to that bridge that will help you remember the meaning of the word abridge. Your goal is to create such a vivid and memorable image in your mind that the next time you en coun ter abridge in your reading, you'll instantly remem ber what it means.
To be useful, your image must have something to do with the meaning of the word rather than merely with the way it sounds or looks. If you merely think of a bridge when you see abridge, you won't help yourself remem ber what you want to remem ber.
What you need is an image that suggests shortening or con dens ing. A dinosaur taking a big bite out of the middle of a bridge? Carpenters sawing it? The image you choose is up to you. How About Another Example? Another useful word on the Word Smart master list is gre gar i ous, which means sociable, enjoying the company of oth ers.
What im age springs to mind? Really think now. Can't think of an image? Be creative. A party animal is gre gar i ous. How about imagining a party animal named Greg Arious. Don't stop with his name. You need a picture. So give Greg a funny hat, a noise mak er, and some polka-dot dancing shoes. Or put a lampshade on his head. Think of some thing that will make you think of sociability the next time you see Greg's name in a book or a magazine you read. The more real you make Greg Arious seem in your imagination, the less trouble you'll have remem ber ing the meaning of gregarious.
The Crazier the Mental Image, the BetterWhen it comes to mental images, crazy is better than nor mal. Nor mal is bland. Normal is boring. If you could easily remem ber bor ing things, you wouldn't have any trouble learn ing new words. Crazy is dramatic. Crazy leaps out at you. You remember crazy. And remember this: Anything goes when you're learn ing new words. Memory aids work best when you have to struggle a little to come up with them. If you come up with your own memory aid, if it really means some thing to you, it will likely become a per ma nent part of your memory.
One of our students once told us that he had tried and tried to come up with an image for the word pros e ly tize, but he hadn't been able to think of one. We asked him what the word meant. He said, "To try to convert some one to a religion or a point of view. Suddenly, he started laughing. He had tried so hard to devise a mne mon ic that he had memorized the word with out realizing it.
Harry Lorayne makes this same point in his book: The beauty of a mnemonic is that even if you can't devise one, you may have memorized the word anyway! When you recognize that a group of words shares a similar root, you will more easily remember the entire group. For example, take the word mnemonic.
You know now, if you hadn't already, that a mnemonic is a device that helps you remember something. We're going to show you two other words that are related to this word. How about words from another common root: chronological: in order according to time synchronize: to put on the same timetable anachronism: something out of place in time or history chronic: continuing over a long time chronicle: chronological record of events chronometer: device to measure time Sometimes it is easier to learn a whole cluster of relat ed words than to come up with mnemonics for them in di vid u al ly.
The Advantages of EtymologyThe principal virtues of using etymology to remember a def i ni tion are that the etymology actually relates to the word's meaning as opposed to the image approach and that the same etymology may be shared by lots of words.
Another advantage of etymology is that it may get you in terest ed in words. Etymology gets you involved in a story-the story of a word through the cen tu ries of history. In Chapter 6 you will find our list of the most im por tant roots with numerous examples following each. We col lect ed all the et y mo log i cal ly related words in the back of the book because we thought that was easier and more efficient than providing the et y mol o gy of each word with its entry.
The Dangers of EtymologyMany vocabulary books claim that etymology helps you de ci pher the mean ings of words. That's true sometimes, but etymology can also lead you astray.
The etymology of a word will tell you something about the word, but it will rarely give you the definition. And it's easy to be mistaken about the et y mol o gy of a word. For example, on a certain SAT, many clever students got a ques tion wrong because they thought that the word ver dant was et y mo log i cal ly relat ed to words like verify, verdict, veri si mil i tude, and ver i ta ble.
Verdant must have something to do with the concept of truth or reality, they reasoned. Clever, but wrong. Verdant comes from a different fam ily of words. It comes from the same old root as does the French word vert, which means green. If those same clever students had rec og nized that connection, they might have realized that verdant means green with vegetation, as in a ver dant forest. Similarly, a lot of words that begin with ped have some thing to do with foot: pe des tri an, pedal, pedestal, pedometer, impede, expedite.
A pe di a tri cian, how ev er, is not a foot doctor. A pediatrician is a doctor for chil dren. A podiatrist is a foot doc tor. The word pediatrician is, however, related to the word meaning a strict teacher of children: pedagogue. Etymology is a pow er ful tool to remember words that you al ready know, but it can't always successfully determine the meanings of words you don't know. The physical act of writing seems to plant the information more firmly.
Perhaps the ex planation is that by writing you are bringing another sense into play you've seen the word, you've said and heard the word, and now you're feeling the word. You may find it useful to spend some time writing down phras es or sentences incorporating each new word.
This is a good way to practice and strengthen your spelling as well. You'll probably have more luck if you don't merely write down the word and its definition over and over again. If you've hit upon a good mnemonic or mental image to help you remember it, or you liked the etymology, write it down. You can even draw a picture or a diagram. You may have used flash cards when you were first learning to read, or when you were first tackling a foreign lan guage.
Used in the proper spirit, flash cards can turn learning into a game. Most of our students find it useful to make flash cards out of index cards. They write a Hit Parade word on one side and the def i ni tion on the other. You should also indicate the pronunciation if you aren't sure you'll remem ber it. Then they can quiz one another or prac tice independently during spare mo ments.
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