What can these things be but clauses of a litany, sung, as in the East, by a deacon? Moreover there are still certain cases in the Roman Rite , obviously of an archaic nature, where a litany occurs at the place of the Kyrie. Thus on Easter Eve the Mass begins with a litany of which the last clause Kyrie Eleison, repeated three times; Christe Eleison, repeated three times; Kyrie Eleison, repeated three times is sung as the celebrant says the first prayers of the Mass, and correspond in every way to our usual Kyrie.
So also at ordinations the Litany is sung towards the beginning of the Mass. In this connection it may be noted that down to the late Middle Ages the Kyrie of the Mass was left out when it had just been sung in a Litany before Mass, as on Rogation days e.
We may suppose, then, that at one time the Roman Mass began after the Introit with a litany of general petitions very much of the nature of the third part of our Litany of the Saints. This would correspond exactly to our great Synapte in the Syrian Rite.
This was then sung, not as in the East only by the people, but alternately by cantors and people. It displaced the older Latin exclamations at this place and eventually remained alone as the only remnant of the old litany.
The first Roman Ordo sixth-seventh cent. Atchley, London , , p. And the school says it [dicit always covers singing in liturgical Latin; cf. When they have repeated it the third time the Pontiff signs again that Christ [sic] Eleison be said. This having been said the third time he signs again that Kirie Eleison be said. And when they have completed it nine times he signs that they should stop.
From a very early time the solemnity of the Kyrie was marked by a long and ornate chant. In the Eastern rites, too, it is always sung to long neums. It is still the most elaborate of all our plainsong melodies. In the Middle Ages the Kyrie was constantly farced with other words to fill up the long neums.
The names of the various Kyries in the Vatican Gradual for instance, Kyrie Cunctipotens genitor Deus of the tenth century, Kyrie magnce Deus potentue of the thirteenth century, etc.
As an example of these innumerable and often very long farcings, this comparatively short one from the Sarum Missal may serve:. Kyrie, luminis fons rerumclue conditor, eleyson. Kyrie, qui nos tuae imaginis signasti specie, eleyson. Christe, qui perfecta es sapientia, eleyson. Kyrie, spiritus vivifice, vitae vis, eleyson. Kyrie, utriusque vapor in quo cuncta, eleyson.
Kyrie, expurgator scelerum et largitor gratiae;quwsumus propter nostras offensas noli nos relinquere, O consolator dolentis animse, eleyson ed. Burntisland, Lord, Fount of light and Creator of all things, have mercy on us.
Christ, True God and True Man , have mercy on us. Christ, Perfection of Wisdom, have mercy on us. Lord, vivifying Spirit and power of life, have mercy on us.
Lord, Purger of sin and Almoner of grace, we beseech Thee abandon us not because of our Sins, O Consoler of the sorrowing soul, have mercy on us. Notice the greater length of the last farcing to fit the neums of the last Kyrie, which are always longer. Hb 2: 3; 1 Cor 4: 5 Veniet Dominus et non tardabit, et illuminabit abscondita tenebrarum, et manifestabit se ad omnes gentes. T he Lord will come and he will not delay. He will illumine what is hidden in darkness and reveal himself to all the nations.
C OLLECT Praepara, quaesumus, Domine Deus noster, corda nostra divina tua virtute, ut, veniente Christo Filio tuo, digni inveniamur aeternae vitae convivio, et cibum caelestem, ipso ministrante, percipere mereamur. P repare our hearts, we pray, O Lord our God, by your divine power, so that at the coming of Christ your Son we may be found worthy of the banquet of eternal life and merit to receive heavenly nourishment from his hands. M ay the sacrifice of our worship, Lord, we pray, be offered to you unceasingly, to complete what was begun in sacred mystery and powerfully accomplish for us your saving work.
Is 10; 5 Ecce Dominus noster cum virtute veniet, ut illuminet oculos servorum suorum. B ehold, our Lord will come with power and will enlighten the eyes of his servants. W e implore your mercy, Lord, that this divine sustenance may cleanse us of our faults and prepare us for the coming feasts.
Ps : Prope es tu, Domine, et omnes viae tuae veritas; initio cognovi de testimoniis tuis, quia in aeternum tu es. Y ou, O Lord, are close, and all your ways are truth. From of old I have known of your decrees, for you are eternal.
S tir up your power, O Lord, and come to our help with mighty strength, that what our sins impede the grace of your mercy may hasten. L et us live justly and devoutly in this age, as we await the blessed hope and the coming of the glory of our great God. B ehold, the Lord will come descending with splendor to visit his people with peace, and he will bestow on them eternal life.
C OLLECT Excita, quaesumus, Domine, potentiam tuam, et veni, ut, ab imminentibus peccatorum nostrorum periculis, te mereamur protegente eripi, te liberante salvari.
S tir up your power, we pray, O Lord, and come, that with you to protect us, we may find rescue from the pressing dangers of our sins, and with you to set us free, we may be found worthy of salvation. Phil 3: Salvatorem exspectamus Dominum Iesum Christum, qui reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, configuratum corpori claritatis suae. W e await a savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will change our mortal bodies, to conform with his glorified body. Ps 80 79 : 4, 2 Veni, et ostende nobis faciem tuam, Domine, qui sedes super Cherubim, et salvi erimus.
C ome and show us your face, O Lord, who are seated upon the Cherubim, and we will be saved. C OLLECT Deus, qui, ad liberandum humanum genus a vetustatis condicione, Unigenitum tuum in hunc mundum misisti, largire devote exspectantibus supernae tuae gratiam pietatis, ut ad verae perveniamus praemium libertatis. O God, who sent your Only Begotten Son into this world to free the human race from its ancient enslavement, bestow on those who devoutly await him the grace of your compassion from on high, that we may attain the prize of true freedom.
Rev 12 Ecce venio cito et merces mea mecum est, dicit Dominus, dare unicuique secundum opera sua. B ehold, I am coming soon and my recompense is with me, says the Lord, to bestow a reward according to the deeds of each. Is 19, 30 Populus Sion, ecce Dominus veniet ad salvandas gentes; et auditam faciet Dominus gloriam vocis suae in laetitia cordis vestri. O people of Sion, behold, the Lord will come to save the nations, and the Lord will make the glory of his voice heard in the joy of your heart.
The Gloria in excelsis Glory to God in the highest is not said. C OLLECT Omnipotens et misericors Deus, in tui occursum Filii festinantes nulla opera terreni actus impediant, sed sapientiae caelestis eruditio nos faciat eius esse consortes.
It is unclear when the language of the celebration changed from Greek to Latin. Pope Victor I — , may have been the first to use Latin in the liturgy in Rome.
Others think Latin was finally adopted nearly a century later. Before the pontificate of Pope Gregory I — , the Roman Mass rite underwent many changes, including a "complete recasting of the Canon " a term that in this context means the Anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer ,  the number of Scripture readings was reduced, the prayers of the faithful were omitted leaving, however, the " Oremus " that once introduced them , the kiss of peace was moved to after the Consecration , and there was a growing tendency to vary, in reference to the feast or season, the prayers, the Preface , and even the Canon.
With regard to the Roman Canon of the Mass, the prayers beginning Te igitur, Memento Domine and Quam oblationem were already in use, even if not with quite the same wording as now, by the year ; the Communicantes , the Hanc igitur , and the post-consecration Memento etiam and Nobis quoque were added in the fifth century.
Pope Gregory I made a general revision of the liturgy of the Mass, "removing many things, changing a few, adding some," as his biographer, John the Deacon , writes. He is credited with adding the words 'diesque nostros in tua pace disponas' to the Hanc igitur , and he placed the Lord's Prayer immediately after the Canon. Towards the end of the eighth century Charlemagne ordered the Roman rite of Mass to be used throughout his domains. However, some elements of the preceding Gallican rites were fused with it north of the Alps, and the resulting mixed rite was introduced into Rome under the influence of the emperors who succeeded Charlemagne.
Gallican influence is responsible for the introduction into the Roman rite of dramatic and symbolic ceremonies such as the blessing of candles, ashes, palms, and much of the Holy Week ritual.
Gallican influence explains the practice of incensing persons, introduced in the eleventh or twelfth century; "before that time incense was burned only during processions the entrance and Gospel procession.
About the thirteenth century, an elaborate ritual and additional prayers of French origin were added to the Offertory , at which the only prayer that the priest in earlier times said was the Secret ; these prayers varied considerably until fixed by Pope Pius V in Pope Pius V also introduced the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar, previously said mostly in the sacristy or during the procession to the altar as part of the priest's preparation, and also for the first time formally admitted into the Mass all that follows the Ite missa est in his edition of the Roman Missal.
Later editions of the Roman Missal abbreviated this part by omitting the Canticle of the Three Young Men and Psalm , followed by other prayers, that in Pius V's edition the priest was to say while leaving the altar.
From until Pope Pius V's text, there were at least 14 different printings that purported to present the text of the Mass as celebrated in Rome, rather than elsewhere, and which therefore were published under the title of "Roman Missal". These were produced in Milan, Venice, Paris and Lyon. Even these show variations. Local Missals, such as the Parisian Missal, of which at least 16 printed editions appeared between and , showed more important differences.
The Roman Missal that Pope Pius V issued at the request of the Council of Trent , gradually established uniformity within the Western Church after a period that had witnessed regional variations in the choice of Epistles, Gospels, and prayers at the Offertory, the Communion, and the beginning and end of Mass. With the exception of a few dioceses and religious orders, the use of this Missal was made obligatory, giving rise to the year period when the Roman-Rite Mass took the form now known as the Tridentine Mass.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. They very carefully collated all their work with the ancient codices in Our Vatican Library and with reliable, preserved or emended codices from elsewhere. Besides this, these men consulted the works of ancient and approved authors concerning the same sacred rites; and thus they have restored the Missal itself to the original form and rite of the holy Fathers.
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