Mandragora officinarum was first described in by Carl Linnaeus in the first edition of Species Plantarum. Jackson and Berry  and Ungricht et al. Ungricht et al. The first confusion relates to the name " Mandragora officinalis Mill. However, this work uses the epithet officinarum , not " officinalis ". However, there was no such earlier use of the name, and Ungricht et al. The second confusion relates to the number of Mediterranean species of Mandragora a confusion which continues.
At different times, between one and five taxa have been recognized. Flowering time was also used to distinguish species; thus in the s, Antonio Bertoloni named two species as Mandragora vernalis , the spring-flowering mandrake, and Mandragora autumnalis , the autumn-flowering mandrake. When Mandragora autumnalis is regarded as the main Mediterranean species, M. All species of Mandragora contain highly biologically active alkaloids , tropane alkaloids in particular.
More than 80 substances have been identified; their paper gives the detailed chemical structure of 37 of them. Alkaloids present in the fresh plant or the dried root included atropine , hyoscyamine , scopolamine hyoscine , scopine , cuscohygrine , apoatropine , 3-alpha-tigloyloxytropane , 3-alpha,6-beta-ditigloyloxytropane and belladonnines. Non-alkaloid constituents included sitosterol and beta-methylesculetin scopoletin.
The alkaloids make the plant, in particular the root and leaves, poisonous, via anticholinergic , hallucinogenic , and hypnotic effects. Anticholinergic properties can lead to asphyxiation. Ingesting mandrake root is likely to have other adverse effects such as vomiting and diarrhea.
The alkaloid concentration varies between plant samples, and accidental poisoning is likely to occur. Clinical reports of the effects of consumption of Mandragora officinarum as Mandragora autumnalis include severe symptoms similar to those of atropine poisoning, including blurred vision, dilation of the pupils mydriasis , dryness of the mouth, difficulty in urinating, dizziness, headache, vomiting, blushing and a rapid heart rate tachycardia.
Hyperactivity and hallucinations also occurred in the majority of patients. Mandrake has a long history of medicinal use, although superstition has played a large part in the uses to which it has been applied. Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. However, the European Medicines Agency, which oversees the registration of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, does not recognise mandrake, and indeed any Mandragora species, as an approved herbal medicinal product, substance, or preparation under the European Directive on Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products.
The root is hallucinogenic and narcotic. In sufficient quantities, it induces a state of unconsciousness and was used as an anaesthetic for surgery in ancient times. In the past, mandrake was often made into amulets which were believed to bring good fortune and cure sterility. In one superstition, people who pull up this root will be condemned to hell , and the mandrake root would scream as it was pulled from the ground, killing anyone who heard it.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. If you survive that, there are 4 more buttons to be pressed. If you do that flawlessly, you have made it to Agitato!
Overall, the gameplay doesn't suck, but it could be a little better. This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Categories :. Universal Conquest Wiki. FandomShop Newsletter GalaxyQuest. They don't go around actively raping humans , but rather use a combination of an attractive fragrance and a psychoactive scream to induce men to rape them. In the Monster Girl Encyclopedia World Guide II: Demon Realm Traveller's Guide there is a whole section on mandragora's roots , which can be painlessly harvested to use as an ingredient in cooking and aphrodisiac potions.
Mandragoras also like having these roots sucked by their husband, so they're good for root fetishists. A plant monster in the form of a woman with roots. The parts corresponding to the roots are buried deep within the earth. They only push out the flower on their head to the surface of the ground. They wait for their prey, which is lured by the sweet fragrance released from the flower petals, to come and pull them up. When a man uproots them, they let out shrill screams containing magical power.
Those who have heard such screams will temporarily lose their ability to reason. Guided by instinct, they will likely sexually assault the mandragora before them. When a man starts having sex with them, they use their roots to wrap around him so that he cannot escape later. If the man refused to move his hips, they will move the roots coiled around his waist to crash his hips into their own.
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