Medicine and curative processes in general is a favorite model for ethics and politics in Aristotle. Just as in the therapeutic art, also in the social sphere there is a domain of science or systematic knowledge and one of pure practice that this knowledge has to be applied and so be tested for its truth and falsehood.
Expressions of a kind of mental illness or unbalanced situation and the healing or restoration of balance are both characteristics of the Dionysian Dances.
The Platonic approach to the therapeutic function of dance and music is probably the earliest existing theory about trance and is developed mainly in the Phaedrus: tragedy in the Poetics viewed the issue psychopathologically: The therapeutic function of the tragic spectacle is more or less connected with observations of the religious orgies and mystery ceremonies that resulted in pleasant relief and with the homeopathic method of therapy used by ancient physicians.
Mimesis for Plato Republic was placed in the lowest position correspondingly to its power to affect the lower part of the soul.
The imitative artist does not address to the noble part of the soul, the logical one, but by strengthening the part of desire, eliminates the logical. Finally, the only poetry which will be accepted in the Republic are "hymns to the gods and eulogies for the worthy people" "eulogies per agathois", a Not worth, concludes Socrates, being caught by art nor prices, money or positions, because the rewards reserved for the man who will not neglect justice and the other virtues are of extreme importance cf.
The rewards are not of the nature of impermanence like the worldly rewards. In other words, the rewards are eternal, because our soul is immortal. Socrates was forced in this way to prove the immortality of the soul cf. Any tragic spectacle can lay claim to moral conduct and therapy by means of the homeopathic method. Aristotle therefore, writing at the time of the enlightenment late fourth century developed an aesthetic theory of drama rather than one based on psychopathology.
According to this line of interpretation of tragedy, the aesthetic and moral impact of the play is due to the philosophical depth both of the content and of its representation. Tragedy has as a whole a sublime meaning: it addresses itself to the mind, which thirsts for truth, even if it is bitter and terrible.
Passions transmitted in tragedy are emotions different from everyday passions and emotions, rational, distilled and capable of lifting us to a higher spiritual sphere. In the case of the actor, the imitation concerns the actions of a heroic character who lived long ago or far away , while in the case of the tragic chorus the imitation is of character types -old men, women, slaves, or foreigners -who almost never resemble the type of person of whom it was actually composed, or by whom they were acted -Athenian male citizens.
In tragedy therefore, the term "mimetic" has a very restricted meaning: those who perform in it mimic of those characters in such a way as to retain their own identities and resume them when the performance is over.
Philosophically, dancing is considered to be a kind of intentional action. As a result of this, it is a compound of theoretical and practical reason. Dance is not outside mental and intellectual processes, it entails simply a specific mental state, like any other intentional action. The interrelation of theoretical and practical as a result of the philosophical speculation justifies dance as an intellectual activity that is also and mainly a human, conscious, linguistic and intentional one.
A philosophically elaborated acceptance is presupposed on the other hand relatively to the traditional problem of the relation of body and mind also as a re-appreciation of contemporary scientific knowledge and the applications in the domains of neurobiology, information technology and medicine.
The ritualistic expression of ecstatic dances is a corrective and curative procedure usually involving purifications and entrancement, which implies an action done correctly, according to specific rules and far from a chaotic or emotional outburst.
These curative rites aimed at "securing for him who was correctly entranced and possessed a release from troubles. Correct would have been ritualized rather than not. The Maenads probably used their rites and dances to correctly entrance themselves. One sign of the correctness in therapeutic action is the presupposition of socialization and collectiveness in organizing those rituals. Another therapeutic aspect of them is the involvement of movement that, as Plato believed, was health-provoking in its connection with the revolutions of the stars and planets in the Universe See Timaeus and Epinomis Plato, although definitely critical of these dances and orgiastic rituals, recognized that they seemed to satisfy an emotional need and that with their violent bodily movements, they really liberate men from their inner conflicts and restored peace in them Laws 7, a-c, c; 10, b-c.
Aesthetics is associated with the ineffable, the transcendent and mystical and with something that stands in stark contrast with the scientific outlook dominated by the cause-effect relationship. Like any work of art so the art of dance is the aesthetic object that responds to emotion. Its beauty cannot be described in words. Its essential meaning is the outcome of a broader dialogue process, where new considerations and perspectives come to the surface.
The feeling that an artwork provokes depends not only on observation but on the circumstances of a given moment as well as on the environment. As mentioned above, we proceed to new interpretations and change perspectives, expressing the approval or disapproval of ours. The same happens with the language that is never clear and absolutely literal and normally resorting to puns. The art and dance therefore, can be seen as a distinct sort of language which is transcendent.
Dance is realized through nods and gestures -such as ancient ritualsthat are more important than language itself. In this sense, the art of dance is universal expressing universal values beyond any linguistic and cultural differences. The art reaches higher levels than any other facet of our lives, than any other scientific certainty as it causes feelings beyond linguistic descriptions. Like Damon of Oa, encouraging our youth to study and even educate themselves in the spirit and practice of ancient Greek culturereviving the therapeutic and humanistic impact of these dances -may be philosophically justified, both in the analytical and in the historical track, as a therapeutic restoration of the axiological integration of our societies and a safeguard of the future of mankind.
Dance research has often dealt with dance in antiquity, but researchers are still unwilling to proceed to a deeper and more thorough analysis of the representations involved, its evolution and role in ancient society, going beyond typology, simple iconographical analysis and the search for the ancient production workshops.
Sometimes, they even avoid answering, whether these depictions are representations of actual dance rituals or just figments of the artistic imagination. According to Kouroupi, "it is extremely difficult to determine the form and flow of a movement, because based on ancient representations and sources only speculations can be made. However, it is possible to determine the content and motives of these dances.
Dance is movement and movement requires rhythm, flow and harmony. Furthermore, dance is a human phenomenon that is connected to society, expressing through the art of movement, customs and traditions, religious beliefs, fears and social needs. Lawler believes that all dance representations are a quick glance of the artist in the movement of the dancer and she concludes that what the artist made was depicted deliberately unrealistic and is mostly related to ideal beauty, design, balance and style rather than an accurate representation of what the artist actually saw in reality.
If one is interested in understanding dance iconography of past centuries, he should try to approach as closely as possible the aesthetic perception and perspective of every period.
Cultural trends are not infinite. Instead, they have a beginning, an evolution and an inevitable end. Consequently, we should not confuse older dance representations and when we do so for comparison reasons, we ought to be particularly careful.
For instance, in many sanctuaries and especially in caves in Attica as well as other parts in Greece, many votive reliefs of the 4th century BC depicting the circular dance of the Nymphs have been discovered. At the same period there has been a boom in the worship of these deities found inside sacred grottos and votive offerings.
These represent a continuous religious dancing tradition which lasted for many centuries and despite the different stylistic and thematic additions it has preserved its basic characteristics unspoiled. The same subject has also been reproduced much later, though, by the so called neoattic workshops of the Roman period, which produced various plaques reserved for the decoration of private villas and other public buildings.
These artifacts were not religious offerings dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs, representing a second boom in their worship, but rather copies of older works of Art, interested solely in form and beauty, mixing sometimes together different artistic styles and religious traditions according to the aesthetic preferences of the buyers.
She believed that ancient Greek dance representations should be studied in their ethnological context and argued that every ancient dance scene should be considered synchronically based on the social, political and cultural factors of the period it belongs. As opposed to the simple classification and iconographical analysis, the inclusion of possible social, anthropological or any other data in the investigation of ancient dance practice can lead to a more integrated and thorough presentation of the ancient dance material.
Ethnological observations of similar dancing rituals from different societies, historical and mythological data, ancient inscriptions and testimonies, human kinetics, psychological mechanisms, even behavioral and cognitive research techniques, all these are nothing but different viewpoints of the same subject. These combined to the ancient iconographic evidence could add more to our knowledge of ancient dance rituals, no matter how distant they are from our society. While searching for the appropriate scientific methodology, Sourvinou Inwood in her monograph "Studies in girls' transitions.
Aspects of the arkteia and age representation in Attic iconography" goes much further and proposes a method for the study of the ancient dance material, in which the iconographic analysis should be separated from the subsequent semantic investigation of those iconographic motifs. In other words, when researchers describe their material, they should try to be as accurate as possible in their descriptions, avoiding proceeding at the same time to any presumptions deriving from their personal experiences and beliefs.
When doing so the researcher avoids drawing conclusions that could be affected by former observations and vice versa. He recognizes, however, that sometimes ancient dance representations are not always completely accurate, and concludes, that that any confusion in iconography might have been among the artist's pursuits. Calame deals with various issues, such as the element of circularity, the age of the participants, the gestures and costumes of the dance members and the role of the leader of the dance and his relation to the chorus.
He is also interested in his investigation on the position of women in ancient society and tries to determine the purpose that lies behind these social events. Similarly, Delavaud Roux in her work Les danses pasifiques en Grece antique presents many ancient female choruses, such as the "crane-dance" or "kalathiskos", where she organizes them in categories according to their form and purpose, such as transitional dance rites e.
These so-called "epiphenomena" are the underlying rules that govern the structure and organization of all cultural events. Carrier of these messages is the human body. That is the gestures, the steps and the clothing of the performing dancers. Dance is a communication mode that should be governed by the same principles. He rejects ethology as a method in ancient dance interpretation, a theory that studies behavioral patterns in the animal kingdom under natural conditions and at the same time proposes the existence of similar "fixed action patterns" in human society, which are governed by the principles of reason.
The messages conveyed in these ritual actions, were understood mainly by those who participated in these social activities. Moreover, dancing is recognized as a "framed event" that took place in a limited period of time and certain social context, characterized by periodicity and social participation. Various either religious or not festivals were held in ancient Greece, all of which were happenings that appeared on either a regular basis or from time to time and were connected to specific dance rituals.
These events where ordinarily staged by the community celebrating some unique aspect of that community and its traditions. Dancing or any other ritual act is a social phenomenon, which within its social context religious or not , covers the needs of different social groups, providing them with the proper motives that surely encourage participation.
These social demands could derive by either the need for communication, personal prestige, financial transaction, change in status, or could be described as an opportunity to socialize within the community with a view to marriage etc. While referring to the communicational aspect of dance Naerebout makes the following remarks: first of all in a dance performance there is someone who is trying to send a message and there is also one who receives it.
In addition, he believes that this type of communication is deliberate even if it is subconscious. Finally, he stresses that the communication channel formed by such a ritual act ought to be effective, otherwise there would be no reason for its existence and would be replaced by something different. As a result, the transmission of the desired message though a dance ritual requires the appropriate means of communication, and in order to decode the transmitted message, the researcher has to try to interpret it.
In other words the researcher of ancient dance should try to "verbalize the non verbal". Dance researchers constantly try to provoke ways in accomplishing that so as to achieve more accurate results. Combining knowledge and methods even from scientific fields, which may seem rather irrelevant, could at times end a useful tool in interpreting ancient dance representations as well as in understanding the ancient society and its customs deeper.
That cannot be accomplished only through the typological classification and iconographic analysis of the surviving dance scenes. Instead, scholars should broaden their minds and consider the possible psychological, sociological, anthropological or any other aspects of these rituals, in order to maintain a more complete and spherical examination of the ancient dance material.
There are times when Naerebout feels that ancient dance research can often lead to a dead end. Nevertheless, he encourages the student to try again, going if necessary beyond their classical studies: in social science, communication theories and even semiotics.
It should be emphasized that any attempt to rebuild or even revive any ancient dance ritual is extremely dangerous and difficult. See also OUZMAN "A great deal of the power and meaning of archaeological material culture is located within the realm of the symbol. See also NAEREBOUT identify the internal rules that govern these ancient dance representations and at the same time detect the inner force that drove people in antiquity to participate in these rituals.
According to Levi Strauss in "The Savage Mind", "art lies half-way between scientific knowledge and mythical or magical thought" and the researcher is invited to follow this path which admittedly is extremely rough, so as to be able to reach some conclusions on dance art and is course over the centuries.
There are at present only a few classicists who specialise in dance and what McNeill calls 'muscular movement' analysis, while even fewer specialise in choreology and metrics. Dale and T. Webster was a notable exception where a metrician collaborated with an archaeologist.
These versions then gave birth to a third version given at the conference on Frontiers in Comparative Metrics, held in Tallinn Vesterinen , In some cases these words clearly indicate what Michaelides calls 'song-dance' or what Torp calls 'dance-song', but in other cases simply 'song'. Nausicaa here assumes the function of a dance-leader. Lattimore, adapted which gives us insight into the performance of the paean and perhaps of other versions of hymns.
One could go as far as to say that some such occasions would actually have been constituted by the performance of song or song-dance". It is important to recall the fact that there are several descriptions of festival dancing in the Iliad and Odyssey that have been exhaustively catalogue by Calame.
Phemius accompanies the dancing of the suitors at Od. Richardson This scene of dancing in Homeric Sparta accords well with later evidence which presents this city as a place of attraction for poets and musicians and of famous choruses performed during the Carneia, the Hyacinthia, and the Gymnopaedia festivals. Similarly, music which does not accompany a song or dance, or both, is very rare. Furthermore when a dancer in a village is asked to show the steps of a dance, he cannot do so without also singing the appropriate song.
To avoid the overtones of words like 'primitive' or 'early', anthropologists favour adjectives such as 'pre-state', 'non-literary', 'agricultural, village' or 'traditional' societies. From vase paintings it is clear that dancers sometimes held hands, wrists, waists or even hair in some cases and these traditions indisputably live on in modern Greek folk-dances.
Taylor's Primitive Culture In his book The Greek Chorus Webster attempted to trace the history of the Greek chorus from the fragments of the melic poets, the odes of Pindar and Bacchylides and all the choral odes in tragedy, making liberal use of the notes made by his wife A. Webster attempted to compare nearly three hundred depictions of the chorus on vases and reliefs from the eighth century onwards with literary sources from Homer to the Hellenistic age.
Webster believed that the development of the metre was fundamental in providing the rhythm for words, music and dance. In her own study A. Dale set out to indicate "the prevailing movement of each type of rhythm" in the lyrics of fifth-century drama. Athenian dramatists drew heavily on earlier lyric poets whose work was well known to them: in particular, glyconic and its variants from Sappho, Alcaeus and Anacreon; dactylo-epitrite from choral lyric, notably Pindar.
Dale strongly denies the presence of ictus in Greek verse; she does however admit that "it is conceivable that dance, especially the energetic dancing of a fairly simple and regular metre as often in comedy reinforce the quantative rhythm with some kind of dynamic beat". Mullen on the other hand seeks to trace the line of dancing within Pindar's odes. Mullen claims that the chorus, in performing the victory ode, danced through strophe and antistrophe, then came to a standstill for the epode.
He harps on 'epodic arrest'. Language pointing to motion and to stillness are scattered throughout the odes without preference to any particular part of the triad.
The sympotic link would allow broader interdiscursivity of epic and lyric, including the threnos, wedding song and hyporchema. Indeed, epic and lyric must have coexisted throughout the entire pre-history of Greek literature. This interdiscursivity is distinct from the incongruity in mixing genres which Plato warns against in his Laws.
David has published a book entitled The Dance of the Muses: Choral Theory and Ancient Greek Poetics where he argues that the verse form of archaic Greek epic can be deduced from a dance step. He complains that metrical or rhythmical analysis by and large has been divorced from the interpretation of the meaning of an ancient poem, though he here neglects Webster, Dale and neo-Hellenic writers on metre and dance, though he acknowledges his debt to Mullen.
David's book has been very fully reviewed by Anne Mahoney and Ronald Blankenborg, both published with Nagy The 'lyric' anapaests, they argue, were accompanied but 'legitimate' anapaests could be either accompanied or unaccompanied. They are often used to announce, or accompany, an actor's entrance or exit: nearly every play of Sophocles and Euripides ends in anapaests as the chorus makes its way off stage. To confuse the issue Alice Singer uses the term 'metrical structure' to refer to the steps of Macedonian dance and connects this to Chomskyan linguistics.
She had begun significant work on the interrelation of symbolic systems and the formal description of human behaviour other than language. Judith Irvine and Ray Jackendoff edited her article on metrical structure of Macedonian dance for publication. She treats dance as a semiotic code and outlines a theory that would explain rhythmic organisation in dance and show how abstract metrical patterns relate to their concrete realisation as sequences of dance movements.
It would then be possible to write up a dance-notation, make notes of kinemes and morphokines and establish the metrical structure of the dance.
Since however the performances are for ever lost to us, it is difficult to reverse the trend and work out the metrical structure of the dance from the given text. Suffice it to say that there could well be a system of generative rules at work in the mind of the oral singer and at the same time a correlated and linked system of generative rules in the mind of the dancers who dance to the poetry.
Kurath had earlier developed a system of glyph notation as a quick method for recording dance movements that could be used for analysis and for graphic representations in published works, but regrettably this is not suitable or designed for reconstruction of dance, which is what we require in ancient dance. This is just one aspect of Homeric artistry and is part of the rhythmical, musical and semantic counterpoint of the verse. Scholars are in total agreement about the range of 32 possible metrical variations within the dactylic hexameter, but only Webster has coined the phrase 'hexameter lyric', an Singer , D' Angour assumes local and personal variation in performance private communication to me By this she demonstrated similarities between African dance and that of blacks resident in the States and showed the differences between these dance traditions and those of Scotland or Ireland Kaeppler, Porter blurts out that "there is no agreement among scholars on basic metrical theory".
Much of the enormous range and variety of the poetry is completely lost if one fails to notice such things. Such analysis exceeds basic acquaintance with the dactylic hexameter and simple technical aspects of versification. Some scholars argue that the central break of caesura in the line or possible enjambment of any kind would not be heard in the rhapsode's recitation of the bard's singing with lyre accompaniment. Ong and Clark have argued that the concept of the written 'line' or 'verse' is a product of our literary culture which is absurd to transpose upon pre-literate societies such as that of the Homeric world or the bards' own society.
The words 'line' and 'verse' tend to imply graphic rather than oral connotations. He advocates the reading of Homer with pauses at verse-final position, regardless of enjambment or other factors, and generally without pauses at verse-medial positions, regardless of caesura, diaeresis and other factors. Since Parry enjambment is regarded as necessary, violent or passive.
Others scholars stress that the rhythmic variety created by enjambment breaks the monotony of an endless succession of one end-stopped line after another, and it may also match the style to the subject-matter. The history of epic declamation. One line of investigation would be to compare various audio recordings or live performances of the Homeric hexameter and to examine the amount of Raalte , 41 and 52;Korzeniewski , 29;Sicking , 74;Webster , 54 n. Porter issues a caveat to this approach: "The relative extent to which the imposed metrical pattern or the natural way of pronouncing the words prevails in the actual recitation varies from age to age and from person to person and its study belongs rather to the history of declamation than to metrics.
Nagy has selected for reading passages from Iliad 1, 9, 18 and 24, Higbie chooses Iliad 1 and 6. On his extensive website www.
They choose to sing the second song of Demodocus. Live performances of Homeric singing can be heard at the Assos Conference of Philosophy www. Mark Miner has given rhapsodic performances of Homer throughout American universities.
Interestingly, David and Higbie ignore the line-ending if the sense demands, while most modern recordings of Homeric epic by e. Daitz, Nagy, Lombardo, Danek and Hagel both ignore the caesuras and pause at the end of the line, the latter even inserting an interlude on the lyre between lines. At Il. Most reciters are, in fact, students or colleagues of Stephen Daitz who himself preaches that same break. Normal and poetic rhythmThe development of modern technology since the s and s has greatly facilitated the calculation of enjambment in Homeric and later hexameters, but these studies also demonstrate that quantitive and statistical data are not wholly independent of the interpreter's point of view.
In its simplest form the doctrine is stated by Hallvard Lie: "Simple words and a great deal of word-phrases have for the most part their firm rhythmic form in the natural, living language. Firstly as is now generally accepted, metrical patterns are ultimately founded on phenomena of ordinary speech; and secondly the manifestation of such patterns is in terms of speech.
These have taken on new forms at many periods in response to impulses spreading from one to another. And what kind of rhythm can quantative verse have since it is based on syllable lengths?
Though metrical and rhythmic patterns are related, they are not precisely the same thing. Nevertheless the phenomena are linked. In performance, no doubt, rhythm was Raalte , 67 Lie , Webster actually believed that the conception of metre as primarily dance, which in some cases be visualised, was an aid to comprehension and that metre had a double function of organising words and dance.
The most regular type of recurrence is the invariable recurrence of identical groups of stimuli, i. Metre can then be defined as the recurrence of identical groups of prominent and non-prominent auditory stimuli within a rhythmical sequence. Allen has famously postulated a dynamic accent for ancient Greek, a phenomenon that Devine and Stephens have striven to refine. Neo-Hellenic interpretations of hexametersStratou, Georgiades, Bazianas, Petrides, Raftis, Panayiotopulu and Papanokonomu-Kipurgu all want to build bridges between ancient poetry and neo-Hellenic song and dance.
Fragments of Greek music, found after , contradict this correspondence. Georgiades' book has recently been republished in Modern Greek including a preface on the scholar's life, work and influence.
Homer was just as willing to picture a lively scene with spondees as with dactyls, as in Il. The onus must lie with the performer, declaimer or singer who should know when expressiveness was intended and could emphasis nuances of emotion in his enunciation or sung delivery.
We do not have to create theories deriving one appearance from another or about the perpetuation of ancient forms in modern dances. Rhythm has a neurological basis. In performance to music and dance a rhythm can be expressed in more than one way at a time.
Recent publications on lyric tend to support the idea of mutual borrowing between lyric and epic and it is not uncommon to see the wedding and harvest songs mentioned in Homeric epic considered as bits and bods of lyric inserted into epic, even "if we cannot work out in detail how epic engaged with specific lyric poems".
Down-dating of Homer to the seventh century brings epic closer to the time at which Greek iambic, elegiac and lyric poetry also began to be known. The main thrust of my argument has been to examine the dactylic hexameter and to see whether it is suitable for dancing or whether we have to discard that notion and assume interdiscursivity, in this case, the intervention of lyric in epic, since obviously they are chronologically closer than earlier assumed.
Both interpretations are possible, I believe, since dialogue in Homer is clearly normal language encapsulated in hexameters: this would easily facilitate similar fossilisation of lyric within the hexameter framework. But at the same time the linguistic creativity of the oral-formulaic composition can trigger off 'dance grammar' and metrical patterns and sequences of dance movements.
D'Angour stresses flexibility in tempi, pitch, instrumentation, and performing skill. Local idiom and intepretation would have underlain singing and dance performance. It would not be too far-fetched, however, to imagine that simultaneous dance could be varied to suit the ethos of the passage in question. Analytical ApproachWhat lies beyond dance? Which values and gnosiological presuppositions constitute the right method and appropriate intellectual context for the understanding, evaluating or even analyzing the meaning of dance in antiquity?
Moreover, which could be the effects and influences of such understanding of dance in our contemporary world and way of life? As I have argued in an earlier text of mine "a first priority towards such an investigation is to clarify the philosopher's task in the area; it is certainly different from the historian's or the teacher's approach.
There are several questions of historical or philological type that have been raised on this subject, f. Philosophy can therefore illuminate the methodological and conceptual presuppositions of such historical theories and more particularly about the development and function of dance forms in antiquity and performing art in general.
We may investigate ancient Greek dance for purely philosophical reasons: the analysis, description and understanding of the constituent elements of dance in Ancient Greece as a particular and also complicated art phenomenon, is a challenging object for the philosopher today, on one hand because ancient Greek culture is presented to us as a characteristically rich dance culture and, on the other hand, because dance has been discussed extensively by such thinkers like Plato and Aristotle".
Ancient Greek dances are therefore significant for philosophical investigation, because in the various kinds and forms they have developed, have had such a central importance in places and times, with exemplary for us cultural, social and political structures and connotations The aim of the present paper is to extend previous investigation in the philosophy of ancient dance providing a wider context of concepts and philosophical presuppositions that will throw light on the meaning of dance and especially its practice in our contemporary world.
A secondary purpose is to specify and illuminate the actual functions of dancing and chanting as a diachronic integral meaningful human activity pointing to its artistic value as well as to its therapeutic applications through a contemporary reconstruction. On the Diachronicity of the Classical Greek IdealsIn our intellectual effort to formulate an answer to the question about the reasons of sustainability and diachronicity of Classical Greek ideals, we can draw valuable epistemological conclusions and paradigmatic information from P.
Kondylis' historicophilosophical work : his methodic systematic thought applies more or less a rationality principle in the descriptive and ontological approach of historical reality avoiding exclusive relativism but also lying between historical realism and an austere scientific ethosmoral practice; such an approach justifies philosophically and epistemologically the diachronic survival of ancient cultural achievements while similar conclusions can be summarized in a most condensed and clear form by recalling the words of Alexandra Deligiorgi in her recent article "We and the Ancients today": "To make up therefore a relationship with the Ancients, according to the measures and means, the needs and goals of our time, we need to have a clear understanding of our own historical and social space-time and also of what it may mean to be classic, within this spacetime, today.
This is something that cannot be achieved without the assistance of the theory without the knowledge and the control of the ways in which today's theoretical practices are moving in order to know what theory supports what. Knowledge of history and theory generated through analysis and syntheses of data is not enough, therefore; we need the knowledge of logic and epistemology that enables a critical examination of the analyses and their conclusions.
The revival of ancient dance in modern times has serious and crucial connotations for the contemporary life of man. On the Therapeutic Functions of Ancient Greek DanceApollonian rationality and Dionysian irrationality -I consider to be parts of one and the same primordial human attitudefunction in a complementary way applying an alteration of discipline and order with expressiveness and ecstatic freedom.
The ancient chorus of the drama more particularly expresses a mental and emotional attitude towards connecting the social with the cosmic harmony. Moreover, Dionysian dance characterized by the socalled dancing madness and divine madness reconciles the ecstatic and wild with the peaceful element of the soul and has a characteristic function of tragic drama to all those who participate.
The therapeutic as well as balancing impact of ancient Greek dances and mimic representations has been stressed and analyzed extensively. We come across the therapeutic aspects of dance by investigating the views attributed to ancient Greeks -until early Christian antiquity -in parallel with the forms and social, educational and political uses of dance during that period The Platonic approach to the therapeutic function of dance and music is probably the earliest existing theory about trance and is developed mainly in the Phaedrus: Socrates is made to say that "our greatest blessings come to us by way of madness.
Telestic and the word teletai mean the Plato also refers repeatedly to the concept of dance and tries to define a psychological origin for it Philebus 17; Laws Plato develops a moral theory of the dance Laws a ff. Lucian in On Dance 23,70,71 and 81 identifies the positive psychophysical influence of dance with its cathartic qualities.
It is a reality identified as religious, attached to myth and cult. In this sense, the dancer actualizes the metaphor of transforming the world around him in accordance with his vision and consequently participates in vivo in the dramatic evolvement of his vision on stage. The theatrical space orchestra with the dancing and dramatic processes constitutes the vision of the poet itself for the very construction of the drama.
We can also deduce the religious beliefs concerning Universe and the social and moral ideas from this theoretical model, which informs a very long period of Western culture Often rites involve invocation of the power of Deity to manifest: either in person or in an object representing the Deity, such as a statue. It may well be that the teletai of the Maenads were to invoke the manifestation of the God -within themselves It is only in telestic madness that we see the 'signs' of possession trance: head flung back, arched body.
Only those in a state of telestic madness dance as well. Amnesia is often a characteristic of telestic -and also mantic, or oracular -madness. Only complete possession leads to the ability to prophesy. The reality that dance formulates during antiquity operates as a metaphor.
Nietzsche remarks that in order to understand the essential function of dance in tragedy one needs to refer to the concept of aesthetic metaphor, the poetic reconstruction of reality as a creative process.
In this sense the aesthetic phenomenon is simple; the authentic poet sees a picture instead of an explanation; a dramatic poet gets into the procedure of transforming himself by speaking in the name of other dramatic personae.
In Nietzsche's words, "dance is reality itself that creates the vision through movement, music and spoken word ". We observe and follow the body just like as if it were playing a game or dancing a folk or traditional dance or participating in anniversary festivities and celebrations throughout the year. Starting from the philosophical investigation of concepts like traditional, physical and historical I have concludedduring a previous part of my researchin identifying the diachronic meaning of the Dionysian element in Greek dances and attempted to demonstrate that the human body as the locus communes of the morphological, biological and psychological aspects of dance can be also an operator of moral, as well as social and political dimensions Improvisational elements on the other hand are recognized in a wide series of ancient Greek dances, since the Homeric time and up to late antiquity.
They characterize mainly samples of individual dances of a free, liberating and mimetic nature. In tragedy and comedy, there is alteration of the strictly formalistic dance schemata of the chorus with a sort of freedom of dancing expression of the protagonist in certain solo pieces or during the kommos the lament. In most examples of ancient Greek dances there is a connection with deities and religious ceremonies in general.
Demeter and Dionysus, figures of prehistoric origin, are mostly dancing and ritualistic deities. Another particular characteristic of these gods is their relation to Hades and metamorphosis. Nico with Velvet. Jimi Hendrix Experience. DO IT! Ian Curtis of Joy Division. Punks not Dead. Ginger Baker. Sid Vicious. Bob Marley.
Jimmy Page. John Lennon. John Lord. Pop Art. Pink Floyd. Mountain Woodstock The Velvet Underground. The Trip. Rock n' Roll. Led Zeppelin.
Kohout Karel - Deliwery - Ruce Vzhůru! (CD, Album), White Cloud - Alessia DAndrea - Alessia DAndrea (CD, Album), Resist Psychic Death - Bikini Kill - The C.D. Version Of The First Two Records (CD), Er Is Een Kindeke Geboren - Leerlingen van de Julianaschool - Komt Allen Tezamen (Vinyl), Various - Tommy Boy (The Movie) (Music From The Paramount Motion Picture) (CD), Jedini - Diskurz - Nova Stvarnost (CD, Album), Hochhaus - Freddy Zimmermann - Hoch-Haus (Vinyl), Old Photographs - Sam Neely - Old Photographs / Somebodys Leavin (Vinyl), Listen Carefully (Maniac), The Holy Ground (Trad.) - Mary Black - The Holy Ground (CD, Album), Shinblast - Crawlspace (4) - Back In Line (Cassette), E-De-Cologne - Die Langspielschallplatte (Vinyl, LP, Album), Down In The Hole - John Campbell - Howlin Mercy (CD, Album), Tip Of A Match - Ezra Furman - Perpetual Motion People (Vinyl, LP, Album, Album), So Lovely, Baby - Rusty & Doug Kershaw - So Lovely, Baby / Why Cry For You (Vinyl) Theres One Born Every Minute (Im A Sucker For You) - Jonathan Butler - More Than Friends (Vinyl, LP,