Spitta considered the fugue "particularly suited to the organ, and more especially effective in the pedal part. Spitta also detects a rhythmic figure that appears briefly in the concluding part of the work bar which, extensively elaborated, reappears in the keyboard Prelude in A minor, BWV , a work he supposes to have been composed around He considers none of them written before Bach's later Weimar years so closer to than to Up to this point, none of the biographers seem to have given any special attention to BWV If mentioned, it is listed or described along with other organ compositions, but is far from being considered the best or the most famous of Bach's organ compositions, or even of his toccatas.
However, that was about to change. In , Schweitzer reworked his biography for its first German edition. In that edition he indicates the work as "well-known". In the D minor toccata and fugue, the strong and ardent spirit has finally realised the laws of form.
A single dramatic ground-thought unites the daring passage work of the toccata, that seems to pile up like wave on wave; and in the fugue the intercalated passages in broken chords only serve to make the climax all the more powerful. In Hubert Parry 's Bach biography, the work is qualified as "well known" and "one of the most effective of [Bach's] works in every way".
He calls the Toccata "brilliantly rhapsodical", more or less follows Spitta in the description of the fugue, and is most impressed by the coda: "It would be hard to find a concluding passage more imposing or more absolutely adapted to the requirements of the instrument than this coda. In the first volume of his Bach biography, Alberto Basso calls BWV "famosissimo" most famous and "celebratissima" most celebrated , maintaining that the popularity of these works hinges entirely on this composition.
He sees it as a youth work, composed before , that with its underdeveloped fugue is stylistically eclectic but unified without breaking continuity. He links it to the northern school, and mentions Tausig, Busoni and Stokowki as influencing its trajectory. Basso warns against seeing too much in the composition. He feels it may be within reach of everyone but is neither an incantation, nor ridden with symbolism and even less a sum of whatever. He considers it an early work, probably composed for testing the technical qualities of a new organ.
He feels that the crescendo that develops through arpeggios, gradually building up to the use of hundreds of pipes at the same time, can show exactly at what point the wind system of the organ might become inadequate. In his view, some of the more unusual characteristics of the piece can be explained as resulting from Bach's capacity as an organ tester.
In that book he devoted less than a page to BWV , and considers it some kind of program music depicting a tempest, including flashes of lightning and rumbling thunder. Pirro supposes Bach had success with this music in the smaller German courts he visited.
All in all, he judges the music as superficial, not more than a stepping stone in Bach's development. In the early s, Harvey Grace published a series of articles on Bach's organ works. He considers that the notes of the piece are not too difficult to play, but that an organist performing the work is primarily challenged by interpretation.
He gives tips on how to perform the work so that it does not sound like a "meaningless scramble". He describes the fugue as slender and simple, but only a "very sketchy example of the form". In his description of the piece, Grace refers to Pirro, elaborating Pirro's "storm" analogy, and like Pirro, he seems convinced Bach went touring with the piece.
His suggestions for the organ registration make comparisons with how the piece would be played by an orchestra. In , Hermann Keller wrote that the Toccata and Fugue was uncharacteristic for Bach, but nonetheless bore some of his distinguishing marks.
Keller sees the opening bars' unison passages as "descending like a lightning flash, the long roll of thunder of the broken chords of the full organ, and the stormy undulation of the triplets". The author warns against numerological over-interpretation like that of Volker Gwinner. Many parts of the composition are described as typical of Bach. Williams sees stylistic matches with Pachelbel, with the north German organ school, and with the Italian violin school, but sees various unusual features of the composition as well.
Williams questions the authenticity of the piece, based on its various unusual features, and elaborates the idea that the piece may have a violin version ancestor. In the meantime, Williams had written a article on the authenticity of BWV ; this was followed by numerous publications by other scholars on the same topic. Around the same time as Grace made comparisons with an orchestral version in his performance suggestions, Edward Elgar was producing orchestrations of two organ pieces by Bach, which did not include BWV Elgar did not particularly like the work, nor Schweitzer's glowing comments about it.
An orchestration was performed in Carnegie Hall in , Henry Wood pseudonymously, as "Paul Klenovsky" arranged his orchestration before the end of the decade. By the mid s, Leonidas Leonardi had published his orchestration, and Alois Melichar 's orchestration was recorded in In , Eugene Ormandy recorded his orchestration of the piece with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Its first uses in sound film included the film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the film The Black Cat.
After , another approach to using BWV in film was under consideration. Oskar Fischinger had previously used Bach's Third Brandenburg Concerto to accompany abstract animations and suggested to Stokowski that his orchestral version of BWV could be used in the same way. Later in , while in California , Stokowski and Disney discussed the idea of making a short animated film of The Sorcerer's Apprentice by Dukas for Disney Studios , the intention being to introduce classical music to a younger and broader audience.
Similar in spirit to the popular series of Silly Symphonies , the short film proved costly to produce. However, starting with the Toccata and Fugue and the Sorcerer's Apprentice, Stokowski, Disney and the music critic Deems Taylor chose other compositions to incorporate into their film project, known as "The Concert Piece. Then the music begins to suggest other things to your imagination—oh, just masses of color, or cloud forms, or vague shadows, or geometrical objects floating in space.
Fantasia contributed significantly to the popularity of the Toccata and Fugue. Man , in 26 episodes between and Morricone used the trumpet musical theme "La resa dei conti" "Sixty Seconds to What? Bach's Toccata. According to Miceli , "It is [ Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Betsy Schwarm Betsy Schwarm is a music historian based in Colorado.
I'm not dead sure of my instincts or indeed objectivity here, so I decided not to be bold and edit, but I encourage others to give it a look. True, "shaky" is not exactly an objective word, but Williams arguments aren't exactly objective either. He has a vested interest in making dramatic claims about Bach's most famous organ work, since he's not exactly going to get published by arguing that a Bach organ work was written by Bach. A few comments on the piano reduction: Firstly, why is it a piano reduction, if the work is for organ?
The piano doesn't quite have the same effect as an organ, especially on the sustained notes. It's called a piano reduction because the piano doesn't have a footboard like the organ, and therefore the song has to be reduced to two parts rather than three. I don't know what to say about your missing note, because I haven't listened to the music clip, but I doubt that the music shown in the article is incorrect. I deleted this information because it's mostly incorrect and not compatible with the modern understanding of Buxtehude's music.
For the record, I removed the links to an online Sibelius score . Personally I think that such a heavily edited score "Slightly adapted for Sibelius playback" with such nonsense as piano-style pedal markings for extended notes is worse than no score at all.
If anyone knows of a better online score to replace it, though, that would be nice. The article currently states that the work is likely Bach's most famous work. Aside from "likely" being an obvious weasel word, this is an extremely dubious assertion. Not that the work isn't very famous, quite the contrary. Nonetheless, Bach wrote a number of extraordinarily famous works. Any of BWV , , , , —, or the ubiquitous Air from , for instance, might be considered among the most famous pieces of music by any composer of any era.
Any one of these is referenced inestimably many times in popular culture, has been performed and recorded a similarly uncountable number of times, and has significant recognition value even among people who do not, as a rule, listen to music composed more than a generation ago.
Indeed, just by making the above list I have opened up a real can of worms: it could doubtless be expanded significantly without adding anything of less than spectacular fame. It's a bit like saying "blue is likely the most widely recognized color". No doubt blue is extremely well known, but so are a number of other colors. Likewise, J. Bach was not exactly a one-hit wonder. Bach isn't the only composer to write fugues, nor was the second movement of Toccata and Fugue the only fugue ever written, so the comment about several motorola phones coming with ringtones called fugue has little relevance to the topic, unless all of those ringtones are Fugue in d minor.
This was unclear in that section. Firstly, they are, after all, classical players as opposed to pop culture..? I would propose to make these entries, as well as the one on Motorola, at least a bit encyclopedia-worthy. I recently heard a glorious orchestral version of this song on public radio. I thought I heard the announcers say that it was by Beethoven, but I can't find any reference to Beethoven having ever written an orchestral version of this piece online.
Does anyone know about such a version? Who wrote it? Would a link to this version  be appropriate to add?
Musanim , 6 May UTC. The Attribution section points out that Helmut Walcha regarded the piece as authentic Bach, but this fact is surely irrelevant, because, at the time Walcha made his recordings, no one had ever questioned Bach's authorship.
The attribution was first questioned five years after Walcha made his second set of recordings. So the fact that Walcha thought it was Bach's work it has no more significance than the fact that everyone else did also. Surely the sentences about Walcha can be removed without any loss? I do not believe that I own the movie, so if anybody could reply to this, then that might be an important pop culture reference. Thank you, It just goes so well with his flamboyant style that he had around his Brandenburg concertos days.
Old, all forgotten, deemed out of style, alone in his church then he goes and starts playing this piece on organ.
Parts of the Attribution section seem to me to read more like a promotional piece for Peter Williams than an impartial article about BWV The authorship challenge is interesting, but perhaps less prominent mention of Williams might be good.
What are other people's thoughts? I rewrote the section, explaining most of Williams' arguments. I also added a list by no means comprehensive of books and articles that support his views, or offer alternative authorship theories. I don't speak German and don't have the Williams article cited in the References section, so all I could do was to explain his arguments from the edition of "The Learned Musician".
Sorry about the messy references - I think the article is in bad shape and needs some reformatting and rewriting, but I don't have the time for that right now. Maybe later. I rearranged some of the sections and made some substantial rewrites, and here are some explanations people might want to hear.
The section "Compositional process" was useless, as it contained no text of its own; instead, it had a subsection describing Bach's influences. It was rather badly written, I'm afraid, because stylus fantasticus has nothing to do with BWV and a description of Buxtehude's five-section model was completely uncalled for practically every north German composer wrote sectional pieces that alternate between free and imitative sections, and besides, Buxtehude's five-part model is not the one used in BWV So I rewrote it in a more concise manner.
No need to emphasize "Bach the Borrower", either - everyone was writing fugues on other composers' themes at the time. So I kept the information, just made the paragraph a little bit shorter.
I also kept the Pachelbel mention, together with the citation needed template. As a matter of fact, yes, one of Pachelbel's D minor fantasias has a strikingly similar passage - I don't have the score, but it sounds very much like a passage from BWV I have never seen this mentioned anywhere, but the similarity is undeniable and so I kept the bit in the article.
Much of what I added on the title of the piece, the north German influence, etc. If anyone objects to this, I'll try to find more citations, its just difficult to cite such things. I'm also planning to expand the Toccata and Fugue sections sometime soon. Our section on Peter Williams' paper says that he "outlined a number of stylistic problems present in BWV It isn't clear from that wording what problems means. As I understand it, Williams didn't identify "problems" with the piece itself, as that term would usually be understood, but rather, stylistic curlicues that call into question its attribution to Bach.
While I don't doubt that the reader will get the idea from careful attention to the section as a whole, I feel that a clearer lead sentence could be written. Sifind talk , 14 October UTC. While the article mentions that this song is used in video games, etc.
I know, for example, that this song is Wellington's ringtone in the second Phoenix Wright game. If this type of information is too trivial let me know, but I think it is a worthwhile addition. Pizzadinosaur talk , 6 January UTC. Remember that it is from a time when there were far fewer video games existing than now.
The rest, that seem to disregard his theory. Even IF Wikipedia is allowed to be used as an advertisement for Mr. William's theory, no matter how far fetched it is, the TOTAL mention of his critique should be proportional to mainstream coverage of the widely irrelevant accusation. William's theory. If even that. From the "Toccata" section: "it was common practice in the Baroque period to write in leading tone accidentals rather than in the key signature.
In United States popular culture, this is often often considered to be Halloween music. Also, along those lines, during much of and , whenever David Letterman mentioned U. Isn't BWV a kind of "hardware acceptance test program", which J. It was not meant to be a piece of sacred art, rather than a torture test for the console and the pipes. At least that is what is being taught here in academia, but there is no such mention in this Wikipedia article?
I think this is notable considering Ulver's popularity and acclaim in the Norwegian music scene. They have won some Norwegian Grammys if I am not mistaken. I've always thought this piece was played by Bela Lugosi in Dracula. This the true pop culture reference. Wednesday 30 September Thursday 1 October Friday 2 October Saturday 3 October Sunday 4 October Monday 5 October Tuesday 6 October Wednesday 7 October Thursday 8 October Friday 9 October Saturday 10 October Sunday 11 October Monday 12 October Tuesday 13 October Wednesday 14 October Thursday 15 October Friday 16 October Saturday 17 October Sunday 18 October Monday 19 October Tuesday 20 October Wednesday 21 October Thursday 22 October Friday 23 October Saturday 24 October Sunday 25 October Monday 26 October Tuesday 27 October Wednesday 28 October Thursday 29 October Monday 2 November Tuesday 3 November Wednesday 4 November Thursday 5 November Friday 6 November Saturday 7 November Sunday 8 November Monday 9 November Tuesday 10 November Wednesday 11 November Thursday 12 November Friday 13 November Saturday 14 November However, since , a number of scholars have challenged the attribution to Johann Sebastian bach, which remains debatable.
These notes are generally in a free form and provide the composer more creative freedom. Toccata generally serves as an introductory foil to fugues, setting the stage for an intricate arrangement.
This second section reflects the popularity of this piece in the late 17th century and early 18th century.
心をつないで - Various - 幽★遊★白書 熱唱編～カラオケバトルロイヤル～ (CD), Wang Wang Blues, Cant You Hear My Heart Beat - Various - The Attack Of The Killer Bs - 32 Stinging Classics From The, Macarthur Park - Maynard Ferguson - Big Bop Nouveau (CD, Album), Futurity / Something To Think About - Osiris (17) - Futurity And Human Depressions (CD, Album), Bricklayer - Hüsker Dü - The Childrens Crusade (CDr), Papa Tango Charlie - Various - LEncyclopédie De La Chanson Française : P (CD), Shylock (live Sydney 1973) - Buffalo (2) - Volcanoid (Vinyl, LP), Me And My Rythm Box - DJ Architector Mendizabal - Me And My Rythm Box (CD), Loved Me Baby (Only You) - Banana Mama - Hey Banana Joe (CD, Album), Comadre - Elis Regina - Elis (Vinyl, LP, Album), Im Starting all Over, Cruise Control - Laudanum - Your Place And Time Will Be Mine (CD, Album), Are You My Friend? - Terry Brooks & Strange - Rock Force (CD) Take Me 2 The Limit - T-Spoon - Mercedez Benz (CD)