Trinkaus  ,  suggests that this is the consequence of a reduction in the habitual loads on the forefoot related to the use of footwear which can be traced back to mid-latitude archaic modern humans Tainyuan I, China. However, footprints in European Upper Paleolithic parietal art show a wide anatomical variation and in general appear to portray unshod feet . Palaeolithic footwear may, therefore, have been either uncommon or perhaps not depicted by means of artistic media.
It is possible that prehistoric footwear was predominantly used in order to protect the feet from rugged terrain and to provide warmth.
Simple one-piece leather shoes made of relatively thick hide would have provided some insulation, particularly when padded with grasses, and would have easily molded to the anatomical shape and dimensions of the wearer's feet.
Such footwear may not, therefore, have induced the same foot pathologies commonly seen among people nowadays who wear leather shoes with a rigid sole  , . Studies of anatomical variations in foot shape and pressure distribution among shod and unshod populations indicate that the latter tend to have wider feet and more equally distributed peak pressures of the plantar load carrying surface than in habitually shod subjects .
A comparative analysis of the frequency of pathological conditions in foot metatarsal bones of recent Sotho, Zulu and European and pre-pastoral South African skeletal samples indicate that the foot of the unshod pre-pastoralist group is healthier as mid-foot and other pathologies are rare .
However, some pathologies e. It appears, therefore, that more research is required on the effects of specific types of footwear on various human populations as it is necessary to take into consideration not only intra- and inter-population variations in anatomy and gait, but also variability in environmental and geographic factors climate, terrain type, etc.
We can conclude that the Areni-1 one-piece cow-hide shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations since the Chalcolithic; more than likely the use of footwear began during much earlier epochs. Both the Ice Man's shoes and the shoe from Areni-1 are relatively simple and sole-less. These finds, taken together with the sandals from the Cave of the Warrior, indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4 th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.
More research investigating the specific pathological and morphological effects of this specific footwear type on male and female foot bones is needed, as this information will allow the assessment of new evidence for its distribution and antiquity.
Grass from within the shoe was dated at the ORAU. The leather was chemically pretreated using an acid-base-acid sequence. First, the leather was treated with 0. Between each step, the leather was rinsed with distilled water. Finally, the sample was treated using a bleach step with 2.
The grass sample OxA was treated in a similar manner, but the acid-base-acid used 1 M HCl and 0. After pre-treatment, all samples were weighed into pre-cleaned tin capsules and combusted in a CHN elemental analyser, operating in continuous flow mode using a He carrier gas linked with a Europa IRMS.
All radiocarbon determinations are calculated with reference to Stuiver and Polach . The results are given in Table 1. Calibration of the results was undertaken using OxCal 4. The results are shown in Figure 2.
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A green, natural environment replenishes us with energy, wellbeing and joy. The environment is also a lifeline for us and generations to come. Keppi kulkikin mukanamme koko loppuviikon reissuilla.
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